The paper describes both the process and the results of adaptation and providing validity evidence for the Russian version of two subscales (Satisfaction with School and Satisfaction with Friends) of Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (sample of third-grade pupils, N = 1729). This questionnaire is one of the most significant scales in the history of studying subjective well-being in primary school worldwide, although it has not been adapted in Russian yet. Adaptation has been carried according to the International Test Commission Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Test. Validity was interpreted according to the Dutch Committee on Testing (COTAN) practice. Psychometric analysis included applying of Classical Test Theory, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory methods. It revealed high psychometric quality of the adapted subscales after deletion of the very three items the other studies suggest as problematic.
The article describes validation process of the diagnostic tool for monitoring assessment of socio-emotional habits in elementary school. The tool is based on the Big Five model and includes three scales: Goal achievement, Cooperation and Emotional control. Two validation researches have been conducted, both on third-grade students from Moscow and Tatarstan elementary schools. Preliminary research (N=1318) examined the construct validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis and methods of Modern Test Theory have confirmed hypothecated factorial structure. Subsequent research (N=2559) proved criterion validity of the questionnaire: it showed expected level and direction of correlation with the results of reading and mathematical skills testing. Presented questionnaire can be used for group monitoring assessment of socio-emotional development in elementary school.
Behavioral problems of children with manifestations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are recorded by researchers in many countries as a common course of learning difficulties. The high incidence of ADHD raises the question of reliable ways to diagnose it. This article discusses a teacher’s questionnaire, aimed at assessing child behavior under school conditions. The questionnaire is an adapted Russian variant of the English questionnaire, designed within IPIPS project (International Performance Indicators in Primary School). Data-based assessment of first-grade Russian students from several regions of the country describes collecting evidences of reliability and validity of the questionnaire under consideration. Multi-stage validation study showed that the questionnaire could serve the adequate technique for recording possible problems in behavior associated with ADHD in primary school students.
The article presents a psychological and socio-cultural analysis of contemporary childhood. It shows that in modern conditions the development of society necessitates scholars to expand the scope of analysis of childhood beyond psychological paradigm. The processes of diversification become more evident, increasing the number of recognized patterns of childhood, which cannot be evaluated from the standpoint of the norm. From the point of view of methodology it means that we need to broaden the view of childhood and take into account the analysis of social and cultural contexts. The article shows that the view of a child as a future adult (childasbecoming)should be replaced by the view of a child at present time (child as being)
The article raises the problem of the relation between the educational success of students and social and socioeconomic characteristics of their families. Children from socially disadvantaged families exhibit lower levels of psychological well-being and self-efficacy. In the future, this fact might negatively affect self-esteem and career aspirations of the younger generation. On the basis of this interlink the education policy, school implemented specific projects and programs, addressing school failure, are elaborated. Feasibility of implementing this approach in Russian conditions is recognized by national psycho-pedagogical science and practice, so the appropriate tools are being developed and tested. The article examines the phenomenon of academic resilience as an ability of pupils to demonstrate high performance despite external limiting circumstances. The article explores the ways and means of overcoming the school failure: 1) providing additional resources to schools, with high concentration of children from families with low socioeconomic status; 2) establishment of counselling centers and professional teams, working with such families; 3) professional development of school teachers; 4) edition of the relevant educational and methodical literature, 5) distribution of programs that support learning; 6) provision of conditions for the students to accumulate positive experience in overcoming learning difficulties, formation of their self-confidence, 7) implementing of special programs for slow learners, using digital technology, 8) engagement of learners in extramural activities.
The article presents a brief review of studies concerning the current status of the psychotherapeutic and coun6 seling skills in the West (mainly in the USA) and in Russia. Papers written by the fellows of the leading US labs in this field and by other scientists are reviewed in this article alongside with investigations of several Russian psycho6 logical institutions. We also introduce some theoretical and methodological papers of Russian scholars.
The article introduces the methodologies of the study of the everyday life of modern teenagers whiсh can simultaneously be used to everyday events tracking occurring in real and virtual space: “Online and offline diary» and «15 minutes». The data of pilot studies showed that the teenager’s online performance is mainly presented in a form of communication in social networks. We have discovered that the on- and offline convergence of space for growth is inseparable from respondents themselves. Through the active use of social networks, a modern teenager is able to be present in different socialenvironments simultaneously. Constant checking news and posts in social networks is a new, peculiar to teenage daily ritual. The so-called «red zones», where a teenager consciously waives the possibility of «escape» into a parallel reality, are linked to significant events in everyday life, while a feeling of boredom brings to life the compensation through «getting about» in virtual space.
A review of specific style of parenting studies is presented. This parenting style is called “helicopter parenting” in Western scientific literature, it is distinguished by excessive parental care for an adolescent who begins his (her) independent life. The data on the connections of this style with the psychological well-being and academic achievements of adolescents are summarized. It is shown that despite the general dysfunctionality of this style, it’s certain aspects can be positively associated with the adolescents’ well-being. A review of cross-cultural research shows that there are as some universal model of parental behavior that provides an adolescent with a sense of secure attachment in any culture, as significant cultural -specific patterns. In the cases when the dysfunctional (from Western culture point of view) characteristics of parenting are correlated with certain cultural norms, they do not have such a negative impact on the psychological well-being of an adolescent, as in Western culture.
The article introduces a new methodin creating measuring tests — Evidence-Centered Design (ECD) or a systematical approach in test-creating. ECD allows usingevidentiary framework while creating the test: the testing results are considered to be the evidence of certain psychological trait or characteristic expression. This method is the most relevant for measuring complex, multicomponent constructs. Methodological positions are presented through our experience in developing a new test for measuring creativity and critical thinking in primary school.
The article is devoted to the problem of the understanding of the decision making under uncertainty. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of decision making is to use ecologically valid empirical models of the decision-making situations. Iowa Gambling Task has been developed to allow research in ecological approach. One of the most prominent questions is to determine neural basis involved in holistic decision making. The article provides an overview of foreign publications and studies on the issue of decision making under uncertainty in case of Iowa Gambling Task.
This article gives an overview of the current status of the problem of plastic brain changes in connection with the study of a foreign language. It links learning of languages with bilingualism, which is a widespread phenomenon in contemporary world. Recent surveys indicate that learning and using additional languages has a direct impact on the overall human cognitive functions whose mechanisms are relatively unknown. In this regard, the most important challenge facing the world today is neuro-biological mechanisms of interaction of languages in the brain of a bilingual and their impact on verbal and nonverbal brain function. Despite the large amount of experimental material on this issue, the data remains controversial, and many authors put under question the existence of such benefits. Possible reason for the discrepancy is a great heterogeneity among bilinguals. In conclusion the article stresses the importance of research of cognitive control in bilinguals in different groups of bi-and multilingual subjects.
The article introduces the results of an efficiency assessment of the educational program for the emotional abilities development in school. The set of technologies was developed and incorporated in the humanities lessons. The technologies are aimed to extend students’ emotional vocabulary, to improve emotional comprehension and description skills. Pretest and posttest assessment measured general and emotional intelligence, creativity and emotional creativity, sociometry. The sample included 305 students from the 8th to the 10th grade (161 in the experimental group and 144 in the control group). The results showed no general effect of the program on the emotional abilities’ improvement. Experimental exposure led to only one significant shift in performance from pretest to posttest (Emotional consequences test). The study showed that the developed technologies have a limited applicability — they enhance only the verbal fluency in generating ideas about the emotional situations.
Normative and nonnormative collective actions are the consequence of differences in estimation of political situation. The article regards the predictors in selection of normative (participation in meetings, signing petitions, etc.) vs. nonnormative (strike, violent actions, etc.) forms of protest behavior (perception of unfairness, self-efficacy, social identity, ideas of out-group). The carried out analysis showed that high self-efficacy, idea of out-group members as equal participants of interaction and experiencing of emotion of anger lead to the choice of various normative protest behavior. Low self-efficacy, steady social identity (including politicized identity), experiencing the emotion of contempt to out-group members often lead to choice of nonnormative forms. In conclusion the article regards the link of various predictors with the choice of individual and group forms of protest and analyzes the possible directions for further empirical studies.
The article presents a relatively new practice of home education for Russia. A survey of numerous studies shows that the transition to homeschooling is characteristic of families with a high value of family cohesion, for those who want to protect their children from the dubious influence of their peers, and for those who have a special idea of religious education. The most widespread home education ("homeschooling") has in the USA (up to 8% of schoolchildren), is allowed and is actively growing in many countries of Europe. The psychological aspect of the problem of home education is linked in the presented review mainly with the theme of family cohesion, although a number of researchers believe that homeschooling itself is only an additional and not the main factor of cohesion. According to the empirical study, Russian homeschoolers are faced with a large number of organizational problems in the transition to home education and with a lack of pedagogical competence of parents and a shortage of special methods of individual education, since only 16% have pedagogical education. The main psychological problems in choosing a homeschooling include a misunderstanding from the inner circle, and in the implementation - the difficulty in determining the parent role. If in traditional school education the parent is a welcoming and loving parent, then at home education the parent becomes demanding and controlling. Homeschooling provokes the creation of various kinds of associations and groups of mutual supports of parents, which indicates the ambiguity and difficulties in implementing this form of education for children.