The paper describes both the process and the results of adaptation and providing validity evidence for the Russian version of two subscales (Satisfaction with School and Satisfaction with Friends) of Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (sample of third-grade pupils, N = 1729). This questionnaire is one of the most significant scales in the history of studying subjective well-being in primary school worldwide, although it has not been adapted in Russian yet. Adaptation has been carried according to the International Test Commission Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Test. Validity was interpreted according to the Dutch Committee on Testing (COTAN) practice. Psychometric analysis included applying of Classical Test Theory, Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory methods. It revealed high psychometric quality of the adapted subscales after deletion of the very three items the other studies suggest as problematic.
The article describes validation process of the diagnostic tool for monitoring assessment of socio-emotional habits in elementary school. The tool is based on the Big Five model and includes three scales: Goal achievement, Cooperation and Emotional control. Two validation researches have been conducted, both on third-grade students from Moscow and Tatarstan elementary schools. Preliminary research (N=1318) examined the construct validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis and methods of Modern Test Theory have confirmed hypothecated factorial structure. Subsequent research (N=2559) proved criterion validity of the questionnaire: it showed expected level and direction of correlation with the results of reading and mathematical skills testing. Presented questionnaire can be used for group monitoring assessment of socio-emotional development in elementary school.
Behavioral problems of children with manifestations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are recorded by researchers in many countries as a common course of learning difficulties. The high incidence of ADHD raises the question of reliable ways to diagnose it. This article discusses a teacher’s questionnaire, aimed at assessing child behavior under school conditions. The questionnaire is an adapted Russian variant of the English questionnaire, designed within IPIPS project (International Performance Indicators in Primary School). Data-based assessment of first-grade Russian students from several regions of the country describes collecting evidences of reliability and validity of the questionnaire under consideration. Multi-stage validation study showed that the questionnaire could serve the adequate technique for recording possible problems in behavior associated with ADHD in primary school students.
The article is an introduction to the thematic issue of the journal “Modern Foreign Psychology”. The issue presents foreign fundamental and applied studies of cognitive processes performed by neurobiological methods and using the neurobiological approach.
The article presents a psychological and socio-cultural analysis of contemporary childhood. It shows that in modern conditions the development of society necessitates scholars to expand the scope of analysis of childhood beyond psychological paradigm. The processes of diversification become more evident, increasing the number of recognized patterns of childhood, which cannot be evaluated from the standpoint of the norm. From the point of view of methodology it means that we need to broaden the view of childhood and take into account the analysis of social and cultural contexts. The article shows that the view of a child as a future adult (childasbecoming)should be replaced by the view of a child at present time (child as being)
The article raises the problem of the relation between the educational success of students and social and socioeconomic characteristics of their families. Children from socially disadvantaged families exhibit lower levels of psychological well-being and self-efficacy. In the future, this fact might negatively affect self-esteem and career aspirations of the younger generation. On the basis of this interlink the education policy, school implemented specific projects and programs, addressing school failure, are elaborated. Feasibility of implementing this approach in Russian conditions is recognized by national psycho-pedagogical science and practice, so the appropriate tools are being developed and tested. The article examines the phenomenon of academic resilience as an ability of pupils to demonstrate high performance despite external limiting circumstances. The article explores the ways and means of overcoming the school failure: 1) providing additional resources to schools, with high concentration of children from families with low socioeconomic status; 2) establishment of counselling centers and professional teams, working with such families; 3) professional development of school teachers; 4) edition of the relevant educational and methodical literature, 5) distribution of programs that support learning; 6) provision of conditions for the students to accumulate positive experience in overcoming learning difficulties, formation of their self-confidence, 7) implementing of special programs for slow learners, using digital technology, 8) engagement of learners in extramural activities.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in «self-regulated learning» among researchers in psychology and pedagogy. However, at the moment there is no consensus of what it meant by it. The diversity of views resulted in a number of different measures. This paper presents a review of the most common questionnaires measuring self-regulated learning. The author analyses such questionnaires’ characteristics as theoretical background, internal structure, and validity. The analysis reveals that all of the questionnaires are based on different internal structures, which reflect authors’ ideas about self-regulated learning. Finally, the conclusion gives the recommendations for choosing a questionnaire and identifies the areas for further research.
The article presents a brief review of studies concerning the current status of the psychotherapeutic and coun6 seling skills in the West (mainly in the USA) and in Russia. Papers written by the fellows of the leading US labs in this field and by other scientists are reviewed in this article alongside with investigations of several Russian psycho6 logical institutions. We also introduce some theoretical and methodological papers of Russian scholars.
The article introduces the methodologies of the study of the everyday life of modern teenagers whiсh can simultaneously be used to everyday events tracking occurring in real and virtual space: “Online and offline diary» and «15 minutes». The data of pilot studies showed that the teenager’s online performance is mainly presented in a form of communication in social networks. We have discovered that the on- and offline convergence of space for growth is inseparable from respondents themselves. Through the active use of social networks, a modern teenager is able to be present in different socialenvironments simultaneously. Constant checking news and posts in social networks is a new, peculiar to teenage daily ritual. The so-called «red zones», where a teenager consciously waives the possibility of «escape» into a parallel reality, are linked to significant events in everyday life, while a feeling of boredom brings to life the compensation through «getting about» in virtual space.
An overview of modern foreign capital studies is presented. Human, social, psychological capitals as independent areas of research are singled out and described. For the first time, the concept of the capital of individuality, complementing other types of capital, is being introduced and developed. The basic features of capital are revealed through the concepts of resources and potentials. Individual properties taken together are shown as distributed resources and potentials, on the one hand, the combined resources and potentials of the individuality taken together by its properties on the other. The perspective of a systematic study of the capital of individuality may be the appeal to the theory of integral individuality of V.S. Merlin and the concept of system integration of human individuality by B.A. Vyatkin and L.Y. Dorfman. An approach to empirical study of the capital of individuality is planned, taking into account the multi-level properties of integral individuality as resources and potentials that enable a person to achieve high results in various areas of life. The concept of the capital of individuality is introduced in order to complement the existing notions of individual differences with a view of them from the point of view of revealing the strengths of human possibilities for existence, life support, individual success
In the modern world, the processes of globalization, migration, increased social mobility, the availability of tourism and other ways of meeting cultures lead to the activation of intercultural communication. More and more people become bearers of more than one culture (biculturals). The choice of an identity model in scientific publications is often considered as a result of environmental influences, but intrapsychic factors, including cognitive styles, are not sufficiently considered. Existing studies give a rather vague picture. The purpose of this work is to generalize the available data on the role of the cognitive component in the identification processes, to identify possible predictors of hybrid and alternative identification, to build a model of the influence of cognitive factors on the choice of an identification model. The author’s hypothetical model of cognitive predictors of hybrid or alternative identity (in the schema format) is proposed. We see further prospects for working on the problem in the empirical testing of the proposed model.
Perceptual learning is defined by increased effectiveness of completing perceptual tasks as a result of experience or training. This review presents the analysis of changes in the components of event-related potentials (ERPs) after visual and auditory perceptual learning in humans. The use of the EEG method, which has a high temporal resolution, makes it possible to trace the spatio-temporal dynamics of changes in the functioning of the brain during learning, which remains hidden in behavioral experimental studies. A review of neurophysiological studies indicates that perceptual learning induces changes across all levels of cortical hierarchy, starting with the early sensory components of ERPs (C1) and ending with the later integrative components (N170, MMN, P2). We also analyzed the short-term and long-term effects of learning. The reviewed neurophysiological data can serve as the basis for the development of new approaches of effective learning, as well as for the objective evaluation of existing methodics by assessing neuronal dynamics at different stages of stimuli processing.
A review of specific style of parenting studies is presented. This parenting style is called “helicopter parenting” in Western scientific literature, it is distinguished by excessive parental care for an adolescent who begins his (her) independent life. The data on the connections of this style with the psychological well-being and academic achievements of adolescents are summarized. It is shown that despite the general dysfunctionality of this style, it’s certain aspects can be positively associated with the adolescents’ well-being. A review of cross-cultural research shows that there are as some universal model of parental behavior that provides an adolescent with a sense of secure attachment in any culture, as significant cultural -specific patterns. In the cases when the dysfunctional (from Western culture point of view) characteristics of parenting are correlated with certain cultural norms, they do not have such a negative impact on the psychological well-being of an adolescent, as in Western culture.
The article introduces a new methodin creating measuring tests — Evidence-Centered Design (ECD) or a systematical approach in test-creating. ECD allows usingevidentiary framework while creating the test: the testing results are considered to be the evidence of certain psychological trait or characteristic expression. This method is the most relevant for measuring complex, multicomponent constructs. Methodological positions are presented through our experience in developing a new test for measuring creativity and critical thinking in primary school.
A stable relation between words and referent objects or events underlies human language. One of the most fundamental questions is how brain processes new words in order to form new lexical items. The answer to such questions will bring significant breakthrough in multiple fields, ranging from methods of language teaching and speech correction programs for children with late development to clinical rehabilitation of patients with speech impairments and neurophysiological functional tests of language network. This review presents the current state of Russian and foreign studies dedicated to new words learning in auditory modality. We tried to consider all varieties of techniques and paradigms in the field. Equal attention is paid both to studies of the phonological processing of a word (recognition of a phonetic pattern), and to works which consider the ways in which word acquire semantics. We discuss experiments carried out with an aid of such neuroimaging methods as fMRI, EEG / MEG, etc.
The article is devoted to the problem of the understanding of the decision making under uncertainty. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of decision making is to use ecologically valid empirical models of the decision-making situations. Iowa Gambling Task has been developed to allow research in ecological approach. One of the most prominent questions is to determine neural basis involved in holistic decision making. The article provides an overview of foreign publications and studies on the issue of decision making under uncertainty in case of Iowa Gambling Task.
This article gives an overview of the current status of the problem of plastic brain changes in connection with the study of a foreign language. It links learning of languages with bilingualism, which is a widespread phenomenon in contemporary world. Recent surveys indicate that learning and using additional languages has a direct impact on the overall human cognitive functions whose mechanisms are relatively unknown. In this regard, the most important challenge facing the world today is neuro-biological mechanisms of interaction of languages in the brain of a bilingual and their impact on verbal and nonverbal brain function. Despite the large amount of experimental material on this issue, the data remains controversial, and many authors put under question the existence of such benefits. Possible reason for the discrepancy is a great heterogeneity among bilinguals. In conclusion the article stresses the importance of research of cognitive control in bilinguals in different groups of bi-and multilingual subjects.