Что дает год обучения российскому школьнику. На материалах PISA-2009: грамотность чтения
On the basis of PISA-2009 materials: Reading literacy The efficiency of one year of study was explored on the basis of PISA-2009 (reading) materials in seven countries: Russia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, Canada and Brazil. An instrumental variable was used, which enabled to assess the effect of one year of study by the nonstrict method of regression discontinuity. The analysis included both general educational programs and vocational educational programs together and comprehensive schools separately. It is found that in Russia the efficiency of one year of study is insignificant to all programs’ students. In the countries where early division into general educational and vocational programs is practised, the efficiency of studying is lower than in the countries where all pupils of 15 years old learn a general educational program. For general educational programs’ students the efficiency of studying is significant in all countries. Compared to the general educational trajectory, low efficiency is typical of vocational programs’ students. The way a family’s socio-economic status and efficiency of school education are interrelated and how much they are interrelated depends a lot on an educational system and vary widely by country. In Russia, as well as in some other countries, efficiency of studying does not depend on pupils’ socio-economic indices. The importance of the results obtained for assessment of efficiency of studying is discussed, and particularly for fair assessment of national achievements in countries with different sets of educational trajectories.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. It was first performed in 2000 and then repeated every three years. It is done with view to improving education policies and outcomes. The data has increasingly been used both to assess the impact of education quality on incomes and growth and for understanding what causes differences in achievement across nations.
In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the ‘top level’ of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.
The articles cover issues of reading, reading competency, library development, as well as the prevention of abnormal development of the young reader.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.