Родовая организация в социально-экономической структуре классовых обществ
The article deals with the mysterious "physics" of urban space and methods of managing spatial development making use of this "physics." Urban space is a value created as a result of various activities. Even though living in a city are various people having different attitudes towards it and towards themselves and other people, all of them together make up an urban community which has a right to urban space and to its use and development. This right, however, is alienated in favor of power elites and administration bodies which, unfortunately, are exercising it, as a rule, inefficiently and not for the citizens' good. The situation that has developed is largely determined by the absence in Russia of the profession of urbanist and the opposition offered by top-level managers and architects both to its establishment and to the achievement of a practical balance of interests of various groups.
The Encyclopedia of Law and Society is the largest comprehensive and international treatment of the law and society field. With an Advisory Board of 62 members from 20 countries and six continents, the three volumes of this state-of-the-art resource represent interdisciplinary perspectives on law from sociology, criminology, cultural anthropology, political science, social psychology, and economics. By globalizing the Encyclopedia's coverage, American and international law and society will be better understood within its historical and comparative context.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.