Время и пространство ностальгии
This article analyzes the theoretical approaches to the investigation of nostalgia in the social sciences. Nostalgia has become an important element of interaction of individual and social consciousness of the past. The concept of nostalgia needs theoretical conceptualization. Now it is used as a convenient metaphor that describes a complex range of emotional experiences associated with the past. This article provides an overview of current concepts of nostalgia and to comment on the further theoretical development of the concept.
The article considers the phenomenon of nostalgia for the late Soviet times. The author presents the results of his observations over the nostalgia segment of the Russian blogosphere. The article is based on the concepts of the past, collective memory and nostalgia, which have been worked out by M. Halbwachs, D. Lowenthal and S. Boym.
The article shows the importance of philosophy Ricker for theoretical sociology. Perspectives of sociology associated with a combination of theories and theories of action events. Action theory developed in sociology and theory of events is not. Ricoeur philosophy - one of the possible intellectual resources in order to change this situation.
The collective monograph is devoted to problems related to the correlation of history, memory and identity. It presents some research results aimed at a comparative analysis of the processes and mechanisms of constructing national and national-state identities. In maintaining and “reformatting” collective memory and identity, the important role belongs to the deep-rooted national historiographic traditions, which define a canonized image of the past in the form of a national or national-state narrative demonstrating main “places of memory” and symbols of "common fate." The authors of the monograph examine key aspects of the topic on the basis of the history and historiography of Russia, individual countries of Europe and Latin America with significantly different conditions and trajectories of the national identity formation.
Postcommunism as an object of study has produced a wide literature, focused mainly on theoretical matters, with a considerable stress on "democratization" theory and analyses of political economy. In this volume, Rainer Matos suggests that postcommunism can be seen through another lens: nostalgia for the old regime, for massive subsidies, public order, international prestige, financial certitude, the welfare state and even the security apparatus of communist regimes.
The author does not only look at European countries, as is common in the incipient literature on postcommunist nostalgia; he also touches upon other cases in different latitudes (the Middle East, Asia, Africa) to discover a kind of longing expressed in varying degrees in the contemporary world, and in a manner as modern as the new liberal values claim to be. While Russia is the main interest of the book, nostalgia for socialism is revealed as a unifying thread of several political, economic, social, and cultural processes that otherwise would not have much in common.
Through an anthropological focus, primary and secondary sources, as well as interviews, Rainer Matos contributes to the study of a phenomenon which is more common than we usually think, expressed for the first time in the Spanish language and that helps to question the legitimacy of liberal political mythology by giving voice to nostalgic actors who find themselves in a limbo between past and present.
Meaningful life is emotionally marked off. That’s the general point that Johansen (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 44, 2010) makes which is of great importance. Fictional abstractions use to make the point even more salient. As an example I’ve examined Borges’ famous fiction story. Along with the examples of Johansen it provides an informative case of exploring symbolic mechanisms which bind meaning with emotions. This particular mode of analysis draws forth poetry and literature in general to be treated as a “meaningful life laboratory”. Ways of explanation of emotional effect the art exercises on people, which had been disclosed within this laboratory, however, constitute a significant distinction in terms that I have designated as “referential” and “substantive”. The former appeals to something that has already been charged with emotional power, whereas the latter comes to effect by means of special symbolic mechanisms creating the emotional experience within the situation. Johansen, who tends to explain emotions exerted by the art without leaving the semiotic perspective, is drawn towards the “referential” type of explanation. Based upon discussions in theory of metaphor and Robert Witkin’s sociological theory of arts it is demonstrated an insufficient of “referential” explanation. To overcome a monopoly of “referential” explanation of emotional engagement, in particular, in literature, means to break away from the way of reasoning, stating endless references to “something else”, presupposing the existence of something already significant and therefore sharing its effects.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.