Профессиональная специфика образа мира и образа жизни
New scheme for psychological component of activity description as an integral description of specifi city of world image in all and life style of professional is proposed. This scheme amplifi es the existing ones and makes it possible to fi ll the description with psychological content. There are no analogous descriptions in foreign publications.
The article is devoted to studying styles of consumption in the field of leisure, focusing on sporting clays which became popular among the Russian elite in the second half of 1990s. The study demonstrates that today people with medium and low income are also engaged in sporting clays. The question arises as to whether sporting clays stimulates social differentiation or social integration. The empirical data collected from participants of a sporting clays club describe the institutionalization process of sporting clays in modern Russia, show social and economic qualities of shooters, and present a typology of people engaged in this kind of shooting.
Different approaches to defining the term «downshifting» are considered. Conception of downshifting as an actual social tendency is presented. Necessity of modern downshifters images presented in mass media is substantiated. Interviews with downshifters published in electronic mass media during 2008-2010 are analyzed in the empirical research. Three types of «successful downshifters» are identified: 1) experience seekers, who are not fixed on a single activity and are seeking new areas for self-realization; 2) those who successfully made their childhood hobby a profession; 3) seekers of calm, harmonic and natural life outside of big cities (developing countries – Thailand, Egypt, India and rural territories in Russia).
The article identifies and justifies the distinction between subjective and event-driven approach in psychology way of life of the individual. Position disclosed approaches to key issues of psychology way of life: determination and self-determination, the lifetime of the person, life development and maturity. Outlines possible prospects for cooperation and integration approaches.
The article is devoted of philosophical views by Leo Tolstoy, we described transitions of ideas from Enlightenment to the philosophy of Life.
Relationship holistic perception of the world and the system of activities of subject
The article is devoted to consumption of alcohol in contemporary Russia. It is aimed at revealing a range of social practices of alcohol consumption; at testing how those practices are connected to social classes existing in Russia, and moreover, discovering social layers which demonstrate new styles of alcohol drinking. Social practices are classified according to types of alcoholic beverages consumed during the last 30 days, frequency of drinking, places of alcohol consumption, and association between alcohol drinking and mealtime. The research is built on the 21st wave of Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE), an annual nationwide panel survey designed to monitor health and economic welfare of households and individuals in Russia. All calculations were done on a sample of 8, 778 alcohol drinkers aged 15 and older. Methods used to analyze data embrace correspondence analysis, factor analysis, and k-means cluster analysis. Six practices of alcohol consumption are ascertained. Research findings demonstrate significant relation of social structure and alcohol consumption. Higher classes mostly represent consumers of light and expensive alcohol. Middle classes tend to consume homemade alcohol. Lower classes stick to vodka, traditional and cheap alcohol. Additionally, individuals who tend to excessive drinking are concentrated in lower-low class. © 2015 r.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.