The review of theoretical conceptions about perfectionistic self-presentation in foreign psychology is presented in the article. The history of creation of original version of “Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale” is described. The results of Russian-language adaptation of “Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale” are presented. The main limitations and resources for the development of the questionnaire are described.
New classifi cation grounds for assigning of characteristics and types of interests are proposed, the typology of interests actual for employees is offered. Structural model of employee’s interests that can be used for researches in organizations by managers and by psychologists as well is presented. Socio-psychological aspects of contradictions in employees interests in organization are analyzed (N = 130), correlations between interests and effi ciency of work activity are revealed (N = 30). Contradictions between different groups (intergroup, corporative) and contradictions between corporative and civil interests are considered as the most signifi cant types of contradictions. The designation of work’s perspectives, stimulation of creativity, complexifi cation of the work due to new tasks’ developing, conformation of feeling of success on-stream, creation of comfortable conditions for development are specifi ed as the way to form stably useful and socially signifi cant employees’ interests.
Main conceptions about normal and pathological perfectionism in psychology are examined in the article. The results of elaboration and approbation of the original method “Differential Test of Perfectionism” are presented. The procedure of psychometric verification of scale indices is described.
The problems of measuring the emotion recognition ability as a component of emotional intelligence are analyzed. A new method (Videotest) is proposed. It allows to measure two aspects of emotion recognition, i.e. accuracy of modality recognition and sensitivity to emotions. A psychometric analysis of the proposed method showed a satisfactory reliability and validity. Recommendations on how to improve it are discussed.
The answer to the question about the sources of cultural-specific and universal aspects of morality demands for the reference to social psychological and anthropological researches. The review is oriented to the verification of the concept of “moral grounds” (J. Haidt). We substantiated hereditary determinism of individualizing moral foundations – care and justice, while genetic tightness of group-oriented morality – ingroup cohesion and vertically is challenged. Appeal to neurobiological research allows us to imagine the brain as a communication point between genetics and environment. We considers the study of moral sphere through the prism of identity as the direction of possible integration of psychological, anthropological, genetic, and neurobiological approaches.
The special factor determining a science development is the arrangement of its conceptual categories. This is completely relevant to theoretical issues of ability and giftedness studies. In present article based on the analysis of the researches, most notably native classical psychologists, and our empirical data the definition of theoretical constructs “ability” and “giftedness” is provided. The approach to determining the nature of ability is founded. The ability is considered in three dimensions: as inherent, subject-activity and personal. It is highlighted that the abilities of the human being (personality) should be considered simultaneously in three dimensions. In each dimension at that it would be shown the irregularity and heterochrony of their (abilities) development. This helps to understand the nature of a complete process of ability formation and development. The suggested concept for ability structure makes it possible for answer the basic methodological question about the relationship between inclinations and abilities. It concerns the consideration of the ability of an individual as the properties of physiological functional systems that implement certain mental functions. It is shown that the ability development is based on a definite natural foundation by completing with intellectual operations acquisition (abilities of subject of an activity), and being under control and directing impact of the motivation and moral qualities (abilities of a personality). Other implications of a proposed view on the nature of ability are discussed in the article. Given that the giftedness in majority of researches considered as qualitatively feature specificity combination of abilities that determines the success in a certain activity and based on the proposed definition of ability the concept of “giftedness” is defined. Some principal issues of giftedness theory is addressed to considerations.
Theoretical model disclosing the occurrence of different systems of thought due to different cultural practices and explaining essential distinctions between East Asians and Westerners is presented in the article. The authors find East Asians to be holistic. attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it. making relatively little use of categories and formal logic. and relying on "dialectical" reasoning. Westerners are more analytic. paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs. They use rules. including formal logic. to understand object's behavior. Described types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies which are typical for the representatives of the mentioned cultures. The hypotheses is put forward that the origin of these differences is traceable to markedly different social systems. Theoretical approach and evidence presented in the article call into question long-held assumptions about basic (and universal) cognitive processes and even about the appropriateness of the process-content distinction.
The results of empirical study of correlation of socio-cultural and personal characteristics with the attitudes to their own health among Russian (n - 103) and Chinese (n = 182) students are presented. There were cross-cultural differences: Chinese students have higher indices of social capital and long-term orientation while Russian students show autonomous motivation of behavior with respect to their health. Women's attitudes to their health in both samples were more positive then men's ones. Such indices of social capital as the level and radius of trust, significance of ethnic and civic identity are mated with positive attitudes towards health in both samples. Autonomous motivation of behavior is correlated with positive attitudes to health in Russian sample.