Конституционный дизайн и консолидация демократии в странах третьей волны демократизации
The sample of third wave democracies was used to test if parliamentarianism fosters democratic consolidation. Elaborated by Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan concept of five arenas suggests a more fine approach to the complex phenomenon of regime consolidation. Operating consolidation according to this template could help explain the reverse transformation in new democracies. Research results partly support the original idea, but diversity in the third wave democracies warns against more definite confirmation.
The constitutional and legal basis which affected the current ratio of powers of institute of presidency in the Russian Federation and the supreme bodies of the government is analyzed in the article with use of historical, comparative and system approaches. The author considers evolution of system of division of the authorities from the moment of adoption of the USSR Constitution of 1977 till the present period, based on theoretical and applied material. In the article the author considers the validity of views of various researchers on the developed place of the Russian President in system of division of the authorities. At the same time the author reasons the thesis about inexpediency of allocation in the Constitution of the Russian Federation along with three classical branches of the power, a presidential branch at a present stage of the state construction, and also defines further stages in development of a role of the Russian President in a system of division of the authorities.
"The Global Obama" examines the president’s image in five continents and more than twenty countries. It is the first book to look at Barack Obama’s presidency and analyze how Obama and America are viewed by publics, governments and political commentators around world. The author of "Barack Obama in Hawaii and Indonesia: The Making of a Global President" (Top 10 Black History Book) scaled the globe to gather opinions -- cultural, historical and political analyses -- about Obama’s leadership style. Writers, journalists, psychologists, and social scientists present their views on Obama’s leadership, popularity, and many of the global challenges that still remain unsolved. As a progress report, this is the first book that tries to grasp ‘the Obama phenomenon’ in totality, as perceived by populations around the world with special focus on America's leadership.
The paper presents analysis of the UK presidency in the EU in 2005, its priorities and outcomes, reflected in the EU and UK documents and formal statements of the leaders. The analysis leads to a conclusion that in spite of the density of the Presidency agenda and simultaneous responsibility for the G8 Chairmanship, the Presidency achieved most of its objectives including successful agreement of the EU 2007-2013 financial perspective.
Corruption, fake news, and the “informational autocracy” sustaining Putin in power
After fading into the background for many years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia suddenly has emerged as a new threat—at least in the minds of many Westerners. But Western assumptions about Russia, and in particular about political decision-making in Russia, tend to be out of date or just plain wrong.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Putin since 2000, Russia is neither a somewhat reduced version of the Soviet Union nor a classic police state. Corruption is prevalent at all levels of government and business, but Russia’s leaders pursue broader and more complex goals than one would expect in a typical kleptocracy, such as those in many developing countries. Nor does Russia fit the standard political science model of a “competitive authoritarian” regime; its parliament, political parties, and other political bodies are neither fakes to fool the West nor forums for bargaining among the elites.
The result of a two-year collaboration between top Russian experts and Western political scholars, Autocracy explores the complex roles of Russia’s presidency, security services, parliament, media and other actors. The authors argue that Putin has created an “informational autocracy,” which relies more on media manipulation than on the comprehensive repression of traditional dictatorships. The fake news, hackers, and trolls that featured in Russia’s foreign policy during the 2016 U.S. presidential election are also favored tools of Putin’s domestic regime—along with internet restrictions, state television, and copious in-house surveys. While these tactics have been successful in the short run, the regime that depends on them already shows signs of age: over-centralization, a narrowing of information flows, and a reliance on informal fixers to bypass the bureaucracy. The regime’s challenge will be to continue to block social modernization without undermining the leadership’s own capabilities.
The president powers as a tool to provide the system of separation of powers and the efficiency of interaction of state bodies are considered in this article. Author analyzes the head of state powers within the different branches of powers. The role of the Constitutional Court to resolve the issues of the interaction of state bodies is underlined in this article. Author describes the value of the powers of the President within the system of separation of powers and explains the arbitral character of them.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.