Юридический перевод в аспекте кореферентности терминов права
Legal Translation In The Law Terminology Coreference Perspective
The article revisits a sustainable phenomenon inherent in languages for special purposes (domain-specific sublanguages) – multiple nomination of concepts exemplified by the legalese and correlating with cognitive representations of domain-specific knowledge. This phenomenon profiles an obvious problem area in special translation theory. Synonymy is treated in line with Yu.D. Aprecian’s concept whereby lexical units are regarded as semantically related if and when they appear referentially identical, i.e. co-referential. Co-reference gives rise to complexities in perceiving and comprehending legal texts in English–Russian translation. An interdisciplinary paradigm is applied for singling out an earmarked direction within the modern Translation Studies – Domain-Specific Translatology. A new name to once customary ‘special translation theory’ draws translation researchers to focus on profound studying of professional translation/interpreting across domain-specific fields, i.e. expert communication area, with the view of analyzing problems aggravated by the terminological co-reference available both in the source-language and target-language as well.
The article discusses one argument in favor of descriptive theory of reference of proper names against the theory of direct reference which appeals to a famous example of the ship of Theseus. The author defends the latter theory by means of distinguishing the object of direct reference and its principles of individuation. The argument is discussed with reference to the works of H. Chandler, L. Linsky, S. Kripke, N. Salmon and other theorists.
The article is focused on the subjec-matter of activity mediation of interpersonal relationships. In contrast with functional-role and personal-emotional ones it is determined by orientation of people's activity towards "universal "I" and by logic of the "object". Levels-layers of intragroup relationships determined by the goal of collaborative activity, personal-business relationships, private emotional-personal relationships are described. The reasons for qualitative difference between activity-mediated relationships in a collectivity and activity-mediated relationships in a corporation as well as the potential of activity-mediated relationships to "warm up" private emotional relationships in a group are analyzed. Phenomena and peculiarities in life of a group revealed by the author of activity mediation theory are related to categories of transactional analysis and the other systems of counseling psychology. That gives the way to the special - personological - approach to the further research.
One of the goals of the first edition of this book back in 2005 was to present a coherent theory for K-Means partitioning and Ward hierarchical clustering. This theory leads to effective data pre-processing options, clustering algorithms and interpretation aids, as well as to firm relations to other areas of data analysis. The goal of this second edition is to consolidate, strengthen and extend this island of understanding in the light of recent developments. Moreover, the material on validation and interpretation of clusters is updated with a system better reflecting the current state of the art and with our recent ``lifting in taxonomies'' approach. The structure of the book has been streamlined by adding two Chapters: ``Similarity Clustering'' and ``Validation and Interpretation'', while removing two chapters: ``Different Clustering Approaches'' and ``General Issues.'' The Chapter on Mathematics of the data recovery approach, in a much extended version, almost doubled in size, now concludes the book. Parts of the removed chapters are integrated within the new structure. The change has added a hundred pages and a couple of dozen examples to the text and, in fact, transformed it into a different species of a book. In the first edition, the book had a Russian doll structure, with a core and a couple of nested shells around. Now it is a linear structure presentation of the data recovery clustering.
This volume investigates advances in the field of legal translation both from a theoretical and practical perspective, with professional and academic insights from leading experts in the field. Part I of the collection focuses on the exploration of legal translatability from a theoretical angle. Covering fundamental issues such as equivalence in legal translation, approaches to legal translation and the interaction between judicial interpretation and legal translation, the authors offer contributions from philosophical, rhetorical, terminological and lexicographical perspectives. Part II focuses on the analysis of legal translation from a practical perspective among different jurisdictions such as China, the EU and Japan, offering multiple and pluralistic viewpoints. This book presents a collection of studies in legal translation which not only provide the latest international research findings among academics and practitioners, but also furnish us with a new approach to, and new insights into, the phenomena and nature of legal translation and legal transfer. The collection provides an invaluable reference for researchers, practitioners, academics and students specialising in law and legal translation, philosophy, sociology, linguistics and semiotics.
This article aims at describing several challenges typical of legal texts remarkably complicated for perceiving and comprehending even within the legal profession. One of the challenges associated with legal texts comprehension appears to be an interdisciplinary phenomenon attributable to languages for special purposes at large - multiple alternative nomination which we name the terminological co-reference trap. Legalists, legal practitioners and legal translators when confronted with the said phenomenon in the English-Russian interaction have to fix non-routine communication gaps. Examples drawn from various legal branches allow for validating a few theoretical assumptions regarding the issues under analysis.
This report addresses a number of translation problems which made themselves conspicuous in domain-specific communication. The quoted English–Russian translation examples are treated as translation precedents within the translation studies, psycholinguistics, and communication theory frameworks. Challenges related to dissimilar worldviews objectified in texts generated in the source-language and the target-language are analyzed; the discrepancy is gaining in momentum due to the expanding professional communication under the lingua franca status recently acquired by English.
The paper revisits the topic elaborated in the earlier Translation Studies serial issue and suggests a diachronic approach towards reference in the interlanguage translation from within the psycholinguistics and cognitive linguistics perspectives. Reference viewed as the universal steering mechanism behind the translation process per se is believed to enable the translator's mental operations. This fact was implicitly evidenced in the respective notes by antique texts' translators who extensively reflected on their rendering of those texts into modern languages, including Russian. Source-text analysis against target language texts favored the translators' viewpoint on intricate and referentially opaque text-reality relations whereby such reality overlaps irreality comprising coexisting human beings with imaginary characters, mythical heroes, as well as real-life and fabled objects and events reflected in the source-language texts generated in high antiquity.
This article features issues related to the inherent structure of legal texts in its relation to the text-internal mechanisms specific for these texts. In particular, the analysis is centered around a legal texts’ propensity to ‘avoid’ pronominal deictic elements, as well as other deixis ordinarily employed for text generation. Legal texts perception is deemed dependent on referencing practiced by the reader. Accents are placed on the ontological difference immanent for texts of law; such difference stipulates their distinction from regular and, thus expected, textual patters; this quality being characterized by minimized elliptical constructions and extended endophoric reference links.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.