In the eighteenth century, the development of the national economy and the spread of the Enlightenment in Russia yield the emergence of the first literature specially written for the merchant class. Such books offered a portrait of the ideal merchant while they were aimed at promoting a general education and modern business practices. In particular, they allow the transfer of the Italian method of double-entry bookkeeping to Russia. This paper highlights the link between these books and the similar literature published in other European countries since the end of the fifteenth century. In addition, we try to investigate their impact on the vocational training and practices of the Russian merchants of the period.
Legal Translation In The Law Terminology Coreference Perspective
The article revisits a sustainable phenomenon inherent in languages for special purposes (domain-specific sublanguages) – multiple nomination of concepts exemplified by the legalese and correlating with cognitive representations of domain-specific knowledge. This phenomenon profiles an obvious problem area in special translation theory. Synonymy is treated in line with Yu.D. Aprecian’s concept whereby lexical units are regarded as semantically related if and when they appear referentially identical, i.e. co-referential. Co-reference gives rise to complexities in perceiving and comprehending legal texts in English–Russian translation. An interdisciplinary paradigm is applied for singling out an earmarked direction within the modern Translation Studies – Domain-Specific Translatology. A new name to once customary ‘special translation theory’ draws translation researchers to focus on profound studying of professional translation/interpreting across domain-specific fields, i.e. expert communication area, with the view of analyzing problems aggravated by the terminological co-reference available both in the source-language and target-language as well.