Исследование способности к усвоению искусственных языков у программистов
Programmer's professional activity requires an amount of work with different artificial languages. Many studies report that effective programming is correlated with the high level of verbal intelligence. In this paper we study the dynamics of artificial language learning among programmers in comparison with psychologists and the group of non-professional users. We show that programmers learn artificial language in a different way, then the other groups, and this difference is based on their professional requirements.
The article represents the materials devoted to the issue of ability development in comprehensive school. The results of subject qualities investigation as determinants of students’ effective intellectual development in educational process are referred to in the article. The author propose the approach to interpretation of such psychological categories as ‘subject’ and ‘subject’s qualities’ (subjectness). In the theoretical propositions review the approaches to subjectness particular model development that identify efficacy of various activities are described. The model of subjectness revealed at the students’ abilities development and results of its (model) experimental examination are discussed in the present article. The work might be interesting both in theoretical and in a particular applied aspects. Its results are of high actuality for the pedagogical systems oriented to the most effective students’ development.
The present study aims to identify the relationship between intellectual abilities and the motives of occupational choice. Results of the study suggest what motives of occupational choice related to the level of certain intellectual abilities. So, for example, the negative connection between the level of mathematical abilities and the “career”, “confidence” and “authority” motives were found. The level of the “formallogic” ability is negatively related to the “joining”, “confidence” and “public benefit” motives. Most of the identified interrelations are negative. In particular, it was shown that respondents with the lower levels of intellectual abilities assessed the importance of majority motives much higher than respondents with the higher levels of various abilities in our sample. A new method intended to identify different motives of occupational choice was developed during this work. According to its results the factor structure of occupational choice motives has been obtained.
The present study focuses on personality factors which determine the effectiveness of the individual innovative activity. I analyzed relations between the most important psychological determinants of innovation: personal innovativeness, creativity, average intelligence, and novelty seeking. Obtained data showed that there is no significant correlation between innovativeness and creativity. This finding contradicts the idea that creativity and personal innovativeness closely relate to each other. But it looks as a partial support for the statement that creativity is the first step in future innovations. Performed analysis revealed no significant correlation between innovativeness and average intelligence. On the contrary, a correlation between personal innovativeness and novelty seeking was significantly positive (rs=.4, p<0.05). Results of the study can be applied to various procedures and stages of the innovation management.
The results of series of experiments in investigating the role of reflection in developing of students’ intellectual abilities are discussed in the article. The dynamics of intelligence and reflection relationship indexes change in various stages of schooling (the fourth, sixth and tenth grades) is examined. The results of the two years experimental work to develop stu-dents’ intellectual abilities in educational process are discussed. Key words: intelligence, intellectual operations, intellectual abilities, reflection, ability development, learning ac-tivity.
The biography of Ivar Lissner is presented – a person, who worked in the Far-Eastern region in 30-40th of the XX century and actually repeated the fate of the Soviet Military Intelligence member Richard Sorge. Lissners destiny reflected all those spiritual flingings typical of the German youths of the period between two World Wars; he went through the stage of enthusiasm from the seeming start of German Renaissance when Hitler came to power, bitter offence from the sudden society`s rejection when his non-arian origin get clear, to oppressive disappointment from his compatriots` betrayal, when he was put into Japanese prison.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.