Analysis of bibliometrics indicators competence approach articles’ revealed the presence of established traditions in the study of competence in social, industrial-organizational and clinical psychology. Intensive empirical studies conducted with application of competence framework present in human sciences. In Medicine and Health Sciences urgent need to assess the competence of health personnel assessment; in Management and Business Studies ability to continuous training of workers, teams, organizations, organizational networks is becoming a key to their successful launch, development and survival; Computer Science research interest concentrate on Digital competence.
Psychological study of competence and expertise, which began in the 60’s (McClelland, 1973; White, 1959), has taken a strong position in the study of different human’s activities. The article presents the current state based on bibliometrics data of new and popular trends in research of competence-based approach in the organization.
The primary search was provided according to the abstracts database Scopus on request «person-centred approach». As a result, two distinct studying traditions was found. First, referring to the classic person-centered approach of Carl Rogers formed in the Advisory practice uses it in the organization. Additionally, view the compliance category all articles link to two books on Rogerian approach (Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1990; Rogers, 1977). The second tradition uses a statistical method Latent Profile Analysis, this method contrasts studies centered on the establishment of links between research variables (Variable-centered), studies that are divided into groups of “clustering” of the subjects themselves (Person-centered). None of the articles of this tradition have reference to the work of Rogers and his followers. The search was limited organizational and psychological themes. We took into account only articles in English. In the column “number of citations” stated the absolute number of citations of this publication in the Scopus database on 19/09/2016.
In this review questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can one’s relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This paper differs from traditional approach to thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. Firstly, it reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusing on the implications of this research for organizations and individuals. Secondly, it highlights the limitations of believing that time is infinitely stretchable and defined good time use as one that results in increased well-being, rather than productivity at the expense of well-being. Thirdly, although the workplace is in the centre of the paper, we view time use from a broader perspective of life and work-leisure balance. A range of evidence is considered, based on both objective and subjective time use studies, suggesting specific measures to increase well-being through time use, first of all, at workplace, but also touching on other domains, such as media, leisure, etc. Based on Self-Determination Theory, we argue that good time use results from choosing activities that help people to satisfy their basic needs and are directed at intrinsic goals (helping other people, establishing relationships, developing and growing as a person, maintaining health and balance in one’s life). A pathway to increase basic need satisfaction and, as a result, happiness associated with good time use, is by supporting autonomy: giving people more opportunities for choosing and working towards goals that are self-congruent and intrinsic, benefitting both themselves and societies.
Purpose is to find the key measures and individual differences of business leaders’ motivation for the prospective career planning. Approach. This article presents the results of the study carried out using a sample of a financial organization business leaders with the aim to identify the key scales of the motivational space that determine labor activity. The research analysed a sample of 670 business leaders, middle and line managers from financial organizations, and used a motivational task procedure (Strizhova, Gusev, 2013), which reconstructs motivational space. The conditions for the solution of a motivational task are realized by Motivation Map method. Diagnostic procedure places a list of motivation objects in a two-dimensional graph space of evaluation scales. Findings. It was found that middle and line managers have differences in their motivation. Money and family welfare are more important for line managers, status and professional and personal development are more important for middle managers, pleasure and inspiration from work has more probability for successes for middle managers, then how career growth has more probability for successes for line managers, interesting job allowing for maximum personal potential realization is more difficult for middle managers, helpfulness to others is more external for middle managers. As a result of multidimensional scaling of the data obtained, empirical scales of labour activity for line and middle managers’ motivational space were also obtained. The results of the research can be used by hr manager and organizational psychologist, interested in executive coaching and talent pool development. Value of the results. The results can be used in prospective planning of the career development.
The study analized the relation between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. Employees (N = 252) from 10 Italian companies from Food & Beverage sector participated in the study. The questionnaire included specific collective organizational efficacy scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, shortened version, adapted at the collective level. Statistical analysis revealed positive relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. The results confirmed that work groups which are involved in their work and demonstrate energy and dedication to working process, are confident and optimistic about organizational capacity to achieve dsired outcomes. Results also showed that collaboration among employees, their understanding and sharing of organizational goals and mission, and dedication to work process predict collective organizational efficacy in internationalization. This result provides managers with information about which type of behaviors need to be emphasized in order to improve collective organizational efficacy and to increase the chance for success on the international market.
The paper aims to show the motivational function of personality resources in the organizational context. Based on the Personality Potential model (Leontiev, 2011) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), we hypothesized that personality resources facilitate productive motivation and engagement with the work environment, resulting in positive outcomes for the individual, as well as for the organization. We aimed to explore three research questions: 1) whether personality resources positively predict autonomous motivation and negatively predict controlled motivation, 2) whether work motivation mediates the effects of personality resources on well-being outcomes, and 3) whether personality resources and work motivation have synergistic effects on workplace well-being outcomes. We used data from two samples of employees of a Russian production enterprise using a cross-sectional design (Study 1, N=4,708) and a longitudinal design with a 2-year interval between measurements (Study 2, N=372). The participants completed measures of personality resources (hardiness, dispositional optimism, generalized self-efficacy, tolerance for ambiguity), work motivation, and well-being outcomes (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, work-life balance, work engagement, organizational commitment). A single dimension of personality resources emerged as a positive predictor of autonomous motivation and a negative predictor of controlled motivation, both in the cross-sectional and in the longitudinal perspective. The change in well-being outcomes was mainly explained by autonomous motivation at Time 1. Using a moderated mediation model, we found that work motivation partially mediated the effects of personality resources on well-being outcomes and exhibited the theoretically predicted interaction effects on work-life balance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The results are in line with the hypothesis about the motivating function of personality resources.
In the past decade and a half, an interest in the topic of interaction between academic and practical psychology has flared up in our country with a new force, and many publications have appeared on this topic. It seems to us that such an ongoing discussion for decades is not accidental. The desireto theoretically and methodologically analyze the differences between practice and science in modern psychology, to find constructive ways of their interaction is largely determined by our immediate future, helping practice not to slip into charlatanry, and science to reach a new level, beyond analyzingonly correlations of opinions and subjective ideas. According to general logic, applied psychology is the research of a specific empirical object responding to an “external” request with scientific methods, ending with recommendations or programs of change developed. Such studies were conducted in Russia in various areas. They were not banned in the USSR years, and here the continuity betweenscience and its “applied incarnations” was maintained. Practical psychology in our country is called professional activity aimed at changing the personality, group, organization, i.e. suggesting not so much a study as an effect. It was this direction that was banned in our country and, having reappeared only in the mid-1970s, it began to flourish, and was not determined in its relations with basic science. This article aims to finding answers to the above questions. We intend to analyze the correlation of academic and practical psychology in terms of their differences and integration possibilities on the example of such a specific area as organizational psychology. The following key parameters for comparison are used: goal, boundaries, generalization, methods, interaction, result, language, performance criteria. In conclusion, two ways of possible integration of academic and practical psychology are outlined— action research in the framework of interdisciplinary projects and problem-oriented conferences among professional community.
Purpose. The purpose of the study is to identify framework approaches to optimizing the working conditions of employees combining work with childcare. Methodology. The study addresses the framing effect and Q-methodology algorithms, namely: Q-concourse, Q-set, Q-sort and Q-factor analysis. The general set of opinions about the phenomenon under study is called the Q-concourse. Comprehensive literature review helped to form the Q-concourse. From the entire set of opinions identified (Q-concourse), a representative sample of initiatives was compiled — Q-set. Results. As a result of the analysis, it was possible to identify three main causes of a false positive assessment of working conditions for employees combining work with childcare: The end of state monopoly in institualizing certain gender roles, international recognition of the lack of an explicit gender gap in companies, and the avoidance of gender-related problems, associated with western feminism., which led to the emergence of the “rose-colored glasses” frame. The article describes the first stage of the study, as a result of which it was possible to identify three framework approaches alternative to “rose-colored glasses”, to determine the boundaries of their suitability, to select illustrative examples of initiatives that correspond to the identified frameworks and satisfy the needs of domestic companies. The revealed lack of freedom of choice allows us to look at the presented reference frames, not as mutually exclusive alternatives to the “rose-colored glasses”, but as a step-by-step program of improvements: the “red glasses” frame; green glasses” frame and “blue glasses” frame. Thus, the study offered answers to the key questions of optimizing working conditions for a dedicated marginal group of personnel: what strategic tasks does the company solve by optimizing working conditions; What individual needs do employees with childcare obligations have? what are the conditions for legitimizing initiatives. The value of the results. Theoretical results may be of interest to researchers of gender differences, inclusion and diversity of categories of personnel, social identity, strategic personnel management. The results are also addressed to the heads of organizations for which the policy on working with various categories of personnel is relevant. The originality of the study lies in the interpretation of gender studies from the perspective of management and the psychological theory of identity
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of approaches to work-life balance research and findings of an empirical study of this construct in a sample of employees of a Russian production enterprise (N = 1205) situated in six regions of the country. The survey relied on two approaches to work-life balance operationalization, a direct subjective evaluation of work-life relationships and an evaluation of importance, effort invested, and satisfaction across six life spheres (work, family, hobbies, socialization, health, and education). The dependent variables included life satisfaction, work engagement, emotional burnout, and workaholism. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we developed 11 short scales reflecting different types of work-life relationship (balance, conflict, negative spillover, positive spillover, compensation, independence). The scales were sufficiently reliable for research purposes. Predictable weak to moderate associations with dependent variables indicated convergent validity of the new subjective work-life balance scales. Work-life balance was more positively evaluated by females, older respondents, those with higher education and position, and higher family income. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found a number of gender differences in the associations of subjective balance and other dependent variables with the distribution of priorities and efforts across the six life spheres, revealing different approaches to positive work-life balance in working males and females. A balanced distribution of priorities and efforts was an essential predictor of well-being in working males. Working females reported higher well-being when they viewed work as a life priority, but invested efforts in family and their own health.
The article deals with subjective experience of work-life balance in the context of Russian culture, particularly the connection between work-life balance and demographic and labor characteristics. There are results of empirical research on a sample of employees (N = 4708 ) from Russian Manufacturing Enterprise. The survey includes four methods: Work-life balance Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, brief method for general life satisfaction measure, the scale of organizational attitudes, measuring psychological climate; Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Work-life balance Scale includes two subscales: “Work interferes with personal life” and, alternatively, “Personal life interferes with work. The results show that work-life balance correlates with demographic variables and indicators of interest in work, life satisfaction and organizational attitudes. The possible developing of measures for self-efficacy improving and well-being enhance is discussed.
Abstract. This arti cle deals with the problem of the relationship between perceived corporate culture and employee’s organizational identification. The existence of given interrelation is confirmed by many empirical studies, however, its nature and features are not fully clarified. It is well known that it is influenced by different variables, both strengthening and weakening it. Purpose. This paper gives a short theoretical review of this issue and reports the results of conducted empirical research. The aim of this study was to clarify the nature of the relationship between perceived corporate culture and employee’s organizational identification, and to verify the function of such variable as attractiveness of organizational culture — whether it is a moderator or a mediator. Study design. Participants were 67 for-profit employees with the education level not less than medium-special. It was a one-stage study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of four parts. The data was mathematically processed using a correlation analysis and a partial correlation analysis. Findings. According to the results of this study, the level of subdivision identification positively correlates with the level of organizational identification. This data also demonstrates that statistically significant correlation between perceived corporate culture and organizational identification is mediated by the attractiveness of corporate culture. Thus, when an employee perceives corporate culture, established in his organization, as an attractive one, his positive identification is likely to form. A further perspective of this research area development is to create a complex conceptual model, which can take into account the strength and the direction of influence of all identified variables, mediating given interrelation.
The present study aims to identify the relationship between intellectual abilities and the motives of occupational choice. Results of the study suggest what motives of occupational choice related to the level of certain intellectual abilities. So, for example, the negative connection between the level of mathematical abilities and the “career”, “confidence” and “authority” motives were found. The level of the “formallogic” ability is negatively related to the “joining”, “confidence” and “public benefit” motives. Most of the identified interrelations are negative. In particular, it was shown that respondents with the lower levels of intellectual abilities assessed the importance of majority motives much higher than respondents with the higher levels of various abilities in our sample. A new method intended to identify different motives of occupational choice was developed during this work. According to its results the factor structure of occupational choice motives has been obtained.
In this paper, creativity is explored in three dimensions: as a divergent thinking (J. Gilford), a self-actualization component (A. Maslow), and a flow state (M. Cikszentmihayi). Certain personal properties of the creative employee can be associated with conflict behavior, provoke its occurrence, intensity and readiness to cope. Purpose. The main goal of the research is to study the relationship between employees’ creativity extent and conflict behavior. Method. A quasi-experiment was conducted in the organizational environment. At the first stage, participants filled several forms on creativity and conflict behavior. At the second stage, the respondents participated in case solving in the dyads. The respondent’s partner was the experimenter’s assistant, instructed on inducing a conflict situation. The subjects were mid-level managers of large companies (N = 687, including 358 men and 329 women, average age 36 years). For the creativity extent analysis were selected the cases in the upper and lower 30% of the sample. Results. Creativity as divergent thinking (Guilford, 1959), a component of self- actualization (Maslow, 1999) and a flow state (Csikszentmihalyi, 1999) are statistically related. There are significant differences in the number of attempts to resolve the conflict within a higher and lower extents of creativity. There are significant differences in the fact of conflict emergence within a higher and lower extents of creativity. There is a statistical opportunity to predict the type of coping strategies based on measures of creativity. The value of the results consists, first, in a review of personal creativity at three levels; second, in created author’s methodology for assessing the flow state, which is of value for consulting practices in the organization; third, the results of the research allow creating a number of practical recommendations and educational courses for managing creative employees.
The model of interrelation between work engagement and personal resources (hardiness, optimism, self-efficacy, ambiguity tolerance – elements of PsyCap construct), different components of job satisfaction (satisfaction of compensation packet; satisfaction of work condition and organizing of the workplace; satisfaction of management; satisfaction of work team; satisfaction of the process and the content of the work), and general life satisfaction are described at this paper. The research was conducted at Russian industrial company from energetics sector (N = 4708). There systems of interrelation and correlation of mentioned variables for employees from different stages of organizational hierarchy were described.
In the present article the factors having impact on the decision of a recruiter at personnel selection are considered. These factors were allocated on the basis of the analysis of scientific literature and expert opinion. They are as follows: education, experience, appearance, knowledge, abilities, skills, knowledge of English, competence, coincidence of values, existence of recommendations, a sex, age, motivation for work in the company, recruiter. The special attention is paid to coincidence (congruence) of values of the candidate and the company as to a factor whichis considered in practice of the large companies. The article generalizes the results of the research, carried out in the Russian division of the international company at thebeginning of 2014. Data were collected during competence-based interviews with candidates for vacancies of professionals without managerial responsibilities. In total 127 interviews were collected. On the basis of the data analysis the model of recruiter’s decisionmaking was constructed, taking into account the statistical significance of factors. The hypothesis that candidates with the values corresponding toshared values of the company, are more successful when passing interview, than those candidates which values don’t correspond to shared values of the company was confirmed. The research findings had practical implication. They promoted the decision to a practical problem in the investigated company — creation of the training program for recruiters taking into account the significant factors defining successful passing of selection process in the company. The scientific originality of results consists in checking the influence of such ill-studied factor, as congruence of values.
Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to identify the external and internal factors which lead to the formation of talent retention practices in organizations operating in the territory of Russia. The research involves 21 companies — representatives of eight industries and five countries. Methodology. The research is based on a mixed methodology. In addition to theoretical analysis and identification of external and internal factors that influence the formation of talent retention practices, the authors conduct a multiple case study to evaluate an organizational context of talent retention practices in the companies. To analyze the data, both qualitative and quantitative methods are used. Findings. As the results of the research, it is shown that with respect to the talent retention practices, the role of the innovative component in an organization’s business model or the role of the stability of the results lead to the formation of two clusters of talent management system configurations. Companies which focus on creating an innovative product / service demonstrate the talent-centered talent management system configurations with blurred, fuzzy boundaries. In such organizations, the talent retention practice is not distinguished as a separate one and does not have clear boundaries but manifests itself through the other talent management practices. Companies that focus on the implementation of integrated solutions and products restricted by sectoral, state and other standards, the talent management system configurations are outlined, with predetermined performance indicators. In organizations of this type, a clearer identification of the boundaries of talent retention practices might be observed, as well as toolkit and criteria by which organization’s leaders determine and identify talents and the principles of their retention. Value of results. As part of the research, the authors for the first time have introduced a numerical scale for analyzing and interpreting the talent management system configuration. The scale made it possible to distinguish two clusters of the organizations from the point of formation of talent retention practices. The further usage the scale provides grounds for preliminary analysis of the talent management system configuration in the company, makes it possible to determine practices connected to each other, and to identify areas for the further development of talent management in the organization.