Межгрупповое доверие русских в поликультурных регионах России: роль ценностей и межкультурных контактов
Objectives. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship of values and intercultural contacts with intergroup trust among the Russian ethnic minority in two multicultural regions of Russia — the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A), the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR). Background. The study of out-group trust is important for multicultural societies. Out-trust contributes to the harmonization of intercultural relations, overcoming unstable social interactions and leads to important public benefits, including personal and social well-being. However, in Russia, trust was studied among the ethnic majority and in the context of acculturation problems. Study design. We conducted a socio-psychological survey. Data collection took place in towns and villages of North Ossetia-A and KBR, where the Russians live compactly. We used the “snowball” method. Respondents received blank questionnaires, completed them and returned them to the researcher. Participants. The sample included 593 Russian respondents. In RSO-A, the sample included 291 respondents (29% of men, average age M=44,6); in KBR the sample included 302 respondents (36% of men, average age M=42,7). Measurements. We used Personal Values Questionnaire — Revised (Schwartz), the Yamagishi scale of trust, the scale of intercultural friendship contacts from the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project (MIRIPS). Results. The results showed that in RNO-A, Openness to change values, Conservation values were positively associated, and Self-Enhancement values were negatively related to out-group trust through intercultural contacts only. Intensive intercultural contacts of Russians also moderated the positive relationship between Openness to change values and out-group trust. In KBR, Self-Enhancement values had direct and indirect (through intercultural contacts) negative effects on out-group trust only. Intercultural contacts also moderated the negative relationship between Self-Enhancement values and out-group trust. Conclusions. In general, the results showed that the characteristics of the sociocultural context determine the significance of different values for out-group trust. In the situation of favorable intercultural relations and in “the close” religious context (RNO-A), if the Russians interact intensively with the dominant ethnic group representatives, then their values focused on the self-direction thought and action, openness to the world increase out-group trust. In “the distant” religious context in the situation of interethnic tension (KBR), if the Russians interact intensively with dominant ethnic groups representatives, then their values of achievement, power, “preserving their own face” reduce out-group trust.