The article presents the results of adaptation and correction of the Russian-language version of the questionnaire “proactive copying inventory”. This questionnaire was translated into Russian by E.S. Starchenkova, but the results of its psychometric verification are not available in publications. The original Russian version of the questionnaire showed good consistency of scales (Cronbach’s alpha was greater than 0.77), but unsatisfactory compliance with empirical data by the results of confirmatory factor analysis (χ²(df) 3025.73 (1259); p <0.01; CFI 0.76; TLI 0 , 75, RMSEA 0.056). Based on the analysis of the theoretical model of the classification of coping behavior using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis, a shortened version of the questionnaire was proposed which has good indicators of compliance with the original data (χ²(df) 509,05 (307); CFI 0.95; TLI 0.94; RMSEA 0.04). The abbreviated version showed good indices of internal discriminant validity, and significant correlations were also obtained with the scales of the COPE questionnaire that were close in content.
This paper is devoted to the Russian adaptation and the analysis of factor structure and psychometric performance of Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. We conduct translation in Russian by the method of back translation, five cognitive interviews by the think-aloud method. Then we carried out the survey, the results of which have been tested using confirmatory factor analysis and other tests of reliability and validity. According to the results of the instrument test, this scale for measuring the degree of belief in the paranormal can be considered reliable and valid.
The paper is devoted to the description of the process of adaptation and modification on the Russian sample Berry’s questionnaire of acculturation expectations. Acculturation expectations are the host population’s (or representatives of dominant ethnic groups) attitudes towards the migrants or members of ethnic minorities. In his own theory of acculturation, John Berry described four acculturation expectations of the host population: “integration” (previously known as “multiculturalism”), “assimilation” (or “the melting pot”), “segregation”, “exclusion”. In addition, Berry developed questionnaire of personal preferences of acculturation attitudes. In our study, we adapted this questionnaire on the Russian sample. In the process of adaptation, we have made some modifications in the questionnaire, increasing twice the number of items, this helps us increase reliability and consistency of the Russian version of this questionnaire. Then we conducted the socio-psychological survey on a sample of the indigenous Russian population of Moscow (total sample size of 198 respondents, including 59 men and 139 women, the average age of respondents 24 years). According to the obtained results, the adapted and modified questionnaire of acculturation expectations can be considered a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the acculturation expectations of host population/ dominant society in the Russian Federation.
Objectives. Identification and analysis of adaptation features, dominant coping strate- gies and components of the anticipatory competence among foreign students in connection with their cultural affiliation.
Background. A contradiction between the amount of empirical data on adaptation and the lack of work aimed at studying the peculiarities of predicting difficult situations in the adaptation process and copying strategies among foreign students due to their cultural affili- ation is becoming more and more clearly marked.
Study design. The study was conducted using a socio-psychological survey. For data pro- cessing and analysis, descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used.
Participants. Students from Arab countries (n = 64) and from India (n = 73) acted as respondents.
Measurements. Technique «Revised Sociocultural Adaptation Scale» (SCAS-R) (J. Wil- son, 2013); «Strategic Approach to Coping Scale» (SACS) questionnaire; «The test of antici- pation competence» (V.D. Mendelevich, 2003).
Results. Arab students are easier to adapt to the educational process, they have more de- veloped group involvement, and personal-situational anticipation competence is manifested to a greater extent than among Indians. The Indians are more likely to seek social support, it is extremely difficult for them to predict difficult situations associated with time and interper- sonal communication.
Conclusions. The results of the study contribute to the identification of coping strate- gies, adaptation features and anticipation mechanisms, depending on students belonging to a particular culture.
The article describes the process of verifying the constructive validity of the “Altruistic Investment Scale”. Altruistic investment is one of the networking strategies that allow scientists to consider the social behavior of an individual in terms of its involvement in the mechanisms of social capital formation and conversion. The results of the empirical research confirm the theoretical model and show that the developed scale corresponds to the components of the strategy, measured in an alternative ways. Testing of this hypothesis was carried out using structural modeling (n = 362). The reliability of the scale was 0.74 (Cronbach’s alpha, n = 670), the grades obtained by the scale do not depend on gender, are not related to social desirability, and correlate in the expected way with other scales of altruism and selfishness. The principal novelty of the construct of altruistic investment was demonstrated. In contrast to the construct of altruism, which is motivational by its essence, altruistic investment is a more complex concept and includes values and behavioral components as well. Moreover, the Altruistic Investment Scale doesn’t measure the ‘first-order’ altruism.
This study examines the role of ethnic minorities’ values in preferences for different acculturation strategies. We used Berry’s bidimensional model of acculturation, and Schwartz’s refined theory of 19 basic values. We hypothesized that individual values associate with acculturation preferences of ethnic minorities’. The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents, Russians and Poles, aged from 15 to 21 years old (N = 298). Using k-means clustering we assigned participants in four acculturation clusters: integration, assimilation, marginalization, and separation. Profiles, which correspond to the four Schwartz higher-order values across clusters and groups, were compared through ANOVA measures. The analysis has shown that participants in the assimilation cluster scored significantly higher on Self-Enhancement than participants in the integration cluster.
This article explores the relations between acculturation expectation “integration” and life satisfaction of the host population. Early studies demonstrated contradicting results regarding this relationship. The reason for these contradictions is the contextual conditions in which intercultural relationships take place. Generalized trust is one of these conditions. The study (n = 198) in Moscow showed that trust is a moderator of the relationship of acculturation expectation “integration” and life satisfaction of the host population. This means that the nature of the relationship between these two variables changes depending on the level of generalized trust: in case of high generalized trust the relationship between acculturation expectation “integration” and life satisfaction of the host population is positive, and in case of low generalized trust the relationship between acculturation expectation “integration” and life satisfaction of the host population is negative. Consequently, generalized trust plays an important role for life satisfaction of the host population in case of their preference integration of migrants.
In this paper examines the effects of low socioeconomic status in adulthood and in childhood on psychological characteristics, such as individual values, self-efficacy, self-esteem, psychological well-being and trust. The sample included people with low socio-economic status (namely poors) (N=162) and non-poor (N=188). Measurement of children's socio-economic status was carried out by retrospective assessment. The results showed that values and self-esteem differ depending on the adult SES. The results revealed the significant effect of adult and childhood SES for trust and life satisfaction. The analysis revealed that adult status had a significant impact on trust only in the groups of those who did not experience poverty in childhood, i.e. the group with average levels of wealth in childhood, and the wealthy group. In conclusion, our study revealed the impact of childhood and adult SES on various individual psychological characteristics.
The article analyzes the relationship between consumer identity and brand personality as a factor of consumer commitment to the brand. We hypothesized that: a) there is a link between consumer’s identity and his preferred brand’s personality; b) the higher the similarity between the consumer’s identity and preferred brand’s personality is, the higher is the brand commitment. The sample included 150 people, aged of 18-25. Methods: the method of J. Aaker was used to study the brand personality, and its modification was used to study the consumer’s identity. The questionnaire of J. Brovkina was used to study brand loyalty. Results: high correlations between consumer’s identity and brand personality were obtained on the scales Ruggedness, Sophistication, Excitement, and high correlations between brand loyalty and deltas of the values of consumer’s identity and brand personality on the same scales were also discovered. On the scales of Competence and Sincerity the correlations were lower, although important as well. Thus, the hypotheses were confirmed: a) it is shown that there is a correlation between consumer identity and brand personality; b) the higher this correlation is, the higher is the commitment to the preferred brand.
The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship of individual values and prosocial behavior in online and offline contexts. Background. Prosocial behavior contributes to both the well-being of individuals and the prosperity of a society. Its relationship with different factors, among which individual values have the strongest predictive power, is contextually dependent. With the development and dissemination of information and communication technologies, number of people actively involved in various kinds of interactions on the Internet is constantly growing. However, specific features of the online context regarding prosocial behavior and how they can influence the relationship between values and prosocial behavior in this context have not been studied yet. Study design. The study is a socio-psychological survey which was conducted within the framework of a cross-sectional one-sample design. The authors developed and adopted special questionnaires to measure prosocial behavior in online and offline contexts. Values were considered in the Schwartz approach and measured using a short version of the individual values questionnaire included in the European Social Survey methodology (ESS). Participants. The sample of the study is quite heterogeneous and includes 187 respondents from different regions of the Russian Federation (average age 35,4 years, 66% women). Search of respondents was done using non-probabolistic, convenience sampling method. Methods of data analysis. The study is based on quantitative methods. Such methods of data processing and analysis were applied as analysis of descriptive statistics, ttest for paired samples, multiple linear regression analysis (Enter method) in the SPSS 22.0 program. Results. The respondents were more involved in prosocial behavior in an offline context than in an online context. Values of Self-Transcendence only are positively related with prosocial behavior in an offline context, while both Self-Transcendence and Self-Enhancement values are related with prosocial behavior in an online context. Conclusions. The results obtained in the study allow authors to conclude that the Internet is still an undeveloped field for the implementation of prosocial behavior, at least for Russians. Noteworthy is the fact that the relationship between values and prosocial behavior depends on the context in which prosocial behavior can be realized. The universality of the positive relationship of Self-Transcendence values and prosocial behavior was established. However, the finding about positive relationship of SelfEnhancement values and prosocial behavior in an online context is fundamentally new.
This paper focuses on the empirical study of one of the most pressing problems of moral psychology today , namely the study of the group as a subject of moral functioning. Tradition investigate the effects of group characteristics and gruppodinamicheskih processes are actively formed in moral psychology , both in our country and abroad. Our study links the type sociometric structure and the type of group moral solutions aimed at the integration of empirical approaches in moral psychology and social psychology. Objective: to study the phenomenology of the process of moral decision making group , the definition of the real impact of sociometric structure and dynamics of the individual level of moral consciousness in the process of group discussion. The sample consisted of 86 people, divided into 6 groups , ages 18 to 24, students studying psychology at the universities of Moscow. The main finding of the study supports the fact that sociometric structure has a decisive influence on the type of group moral decisions and allows overestimate the importance of the rational component of moral functioning moral psychology.
Values are one of the most important determinants of human behavior, including creative behavior. This work is based on the view that a common predisposition to innovation can be influenced by the individual values. The participants of the research were 380 people - representatives of young (under 25) and adult generations (above 45 years). The study revealed that values "Humility", "Conformity Rules", "Security", "Tradition" form the basis of interpersonal behavior in collectivist cultures and may prevent the adoption of innovations among the adult generation of Russians. The values of "Self-Direction Thought", "Stimulation", "Achievement", "Power Dominance ", "Power Resources" stimulates the adoption and implementation of innovations among Russian youth.
The article sets theoretical ground for the content and structure of the “altruistic investment” networking strategy as one of the strategies of individual social behavior. Altruistic investment is based, firstly, on the value of a benevolent attitude toward all people; secondly, the desire of the individual to improve the “social situation” for all its participants and thirdly, it involves conscious action for the sake of the common good, namely, investing resources in maintaining positive group norms and protecting justice. The study used the modified social dilemmas, “Public good dilemma” and “Dictator game under third-party punishment”. Using structural modeling in a sample of 362 people, it was found that the empirical data correspond to the a priori model of altruistic investment in the group’s social capital. The structure of the networking strategy of the individual contains the value, motivational and behavioral components. The role of altruistic investment in the formation of the social capital of the group is shown.
The skills of non-standard thinking and creativity play an important role in stress- ful situations. We hypothesized that stress factors influence the effectiveness of pass- ing the assessment by employees: high level of creativity increases the effectiveness of task execution. We conducted the experiment and used J. Guilford’s technique and tasks on creativity thinking, created by T. Lubart and G. Altshuller. The sample con- sisted of 200 examinees (92 females and 108 males), employees of different organiza- tions (age — from 23 to 60). The results show that time limitation as a stressful factor decreases the effectiveness of passing the assessment by employees with both low and high levels of creativity (p£0,01). Work in a pair does not influence the effectiveness of passing the assessment regardless of the level of creativity (p³0,05). Multitasking is stressful for employees with a low level of creativity (p£0,01). The results of our research can be taken as principles of psychological trainings for development of em ployees’ stress-resistance.
The presented study is a continuation of the study of the perception of urban spaces in children who are labeled as scary or dangerous. Research based on the theory of frames Goffman. Used the concept of heterotopia Foucault.
The study compares the results of the identification of the terrible places in the city by children and adults. The study identifies the key trends of children's perception of dangerous and scary urban spaces. The key method of qualitative research is unstructured interviews (85 interviews about the scary parts of the city from the citizens from 7 to 11 years, namely from 41 boys and 44 girls, mostly younger students).
The presented study shows that younger students and young adolescents compared to adult citizens have the basic social competence in the identification of dangerous and scary places in the city. Interpretive matrix of children for determining the "worst places" formed irrational and non-reflexive. The most significant differences between adults and children of city in the way they describe the Stranger in the city (which is assessed as dangerous Stranger).