Является ли опыт международной мобильности карьерным преимуществом? Пример российских учёных
The current agenda of Russian scientific policy pays much attention to measures aimed at supporting the mobility of scientific personnel (including young ones). The purpose of this study is to analyze how the experience of international mobility affects the objective and subjective indicators of employment of Russian Doctorate Holders, and to find out whether the experience of working or studying abroad always gives advantages when returning to the home country. The empirical base of the study is the data of the project “Monitoring survey of Highly Qualified R&D Personnel” (N=1742 for the year 2019). The obtained results show that the impact of the international mobility on the careers of Russian researchers is a complex phenomenon that is not limited to positive effects. A number of advantages can be received for the “non-mobile career”, when loyalty to the current organization is rewarded. Along with the implementation of mobility support programs, it is necessary to create an institutional environment in which researchers with experience in international mobility can maximize their professional potential and have a favorable environment for building a scientific career.
Most current studies of highly-skilled personnel argue that the intrinsic personal motivation is their main feature and this motivation has a non-linear connection with external management actions. In order to attract scientists to the sector of research and development, as well as to maintain the competitiveness of national science, a special environment must be created, which will encourage a high level of self-motivation among researchers. An analysis of motivation patterns of researchers provided in this paper is based on data from the international project, «Careers of Doctorate Holders», (CDH) and its Russian counterpart, «Monitoring survey of Highly Qualified R&D Personnel». One of the goals was to investigate the stability and variability of researcher’s motivation during the different periods of a career, such as professional choice, current work activity and a hypothetical situation of a job change.
The eight most common patterns of motivation were identified and they can be considered as the basic motivational structures of researchers. Most of these patterns include a focus on the creative and innovative nature of scientific work. The second important component is the independence and relative autonomy, which is typical for research activity. Economic motives are rarely important when choosing an academic career; however, they play an important instrumental role in the actual scientific work, since an appropriate material base is required for the successful achievement of a researcher’s professional goals. A hypothetical situation of a job change, including moving abroad (for a long or limited time) also shows the priority of internal personal motives over external ones, which are associated with the material conditions.
The opportunity for professional and personal achievements plays the role of a trigger for the high-level motivation of R&D personnel. The main drivers of research motivation are self-realization, improvement of skills and competences, therefore the professional environment must be organized properly to promote the advancement of intellectual workers. Management based primarily on the external rewards may even reduce personal motivation, since it transforms people’s natural enthusiasm and interest to only material goods. The obtained research results give us reason to argue that the Russian scientific policy agenda must include the creation and maintenance of adequate conditions in which research potential can be fully realized and where the personal reputation of the scientist will be recognized.
The development of information technologies and rapid growth in the volume of accumulated data makes it necessary to develop new scientific approaches, technologies and methods for collecting, processing and storing information. Digitalization has significantly affected people employed in science and technology: the ability to work with large amounts of information, the knowledge of statistics, and the ability to correctly publish research results became crucially important. For researchers the possession of digital skills signifies the confident use of new data analysis tools and implementation of new technologies.
Research practices and competencies of Russian doctorate holders are examined within the framework of the project “Monitoring survey of Highly Qualified R&D Personnel” (National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2010-2019). One of the objectives of the project was to assess the readiness of Russian researchers for digital transformation and to found out to what extent modern digital technologies have taken over the activities of Russian Doctorate holders. It was analyzed whether Russian scientists are familiar with modern digital terminology, whether they apply modern data processing tools in practice and whether they are ready to improve own digital skills.
The sample included the total of 2061 Russian Doctorate holders, representing all fields of science, and employed in the academic sector (research institutes and universities), as well as in industrial and service sector companies.
The professional activity of most Russian Doctorate holders is associated with the regular use of information technologies. Among the surveyed PhD holders, 85% reported that they regularly use computers and the Internet, another 10% use them periodically. But scientific work involves not only basic computer skills, but also advanced data analysis tools. Our results show that less than half of Russian Doctorate holders are aware of modern digital technologies, except for Big Data Analysis. Moreover, a number of digital tools and technologies are well-known, but have not yet found widespread practical application.
The “digital outlook” can come from the general erudition of the Doctorate holder or from the practical experience of using various digital tools: researchers can be clearly divided into “abstractly informed” and “practitioners”. Employees of research institutes, who are more aware of the meaning of digital terminology, use new digital technologies much less frequently than their colleagues from universities and the non-academic sector. A similar situation is observed when comparing age groups: while the youngest scientists are more often aware of the meaning of digital terms, middle-aged and older scientists, if they know the digital technologies, also quite often use them in practice.
Every third Doctorate holder in Russia at least occasionally uses Big Data analysis, every fourth – Data Mining, User interface design, Cloud and distributed computing, every fifth – Text Mining, Machine Learning, Applied Mathematical Optimization.
The use of particular digital technologies varies according to the type of organization: User Interface Design is more often practiced outside the academic sector, while Big Data Analysis and Machine Learning are more actively used by Doctorate holders employed in research institutes and universities. The biggest number of employees who deal with Mobile Application Development appeared in the research Institutes.
The most advanced digital users are those who specialized in natural sciences, engineering sciences, social sciences, and mathematics; PhD holders in agriculture are the least informed.
A significant part of Russian scientists already have experience in improving their digital skills by taking part in various computer courses. Over the last 3 years, every fifth Doctorate holder (18.9%) attended computer courses. However, emphasizing digital skills, it is important not to forget about the importance of soft and hard skills, that employers expect from researchers.
The study reveals the essence of the involvement of Russian science in the world scientific community in terms of transition state and explores the degrees of involvement that help better understand its nature. The article analyses the specifics of scientific life, as well as its aspect related to the international communication; the author describes the specific features of the Russian scientific community that has led to problematisation. The author presents an alternative vision of the topic; this vision is not aimed at the problematisation, but at different circumstances it was caused by.
Given the constantly high demand for skilled workers in professions and industries around the world, national governments strive for developing and implementing comprehensive and sustained policy measures to develop human potential of countries. This is especially done by educating people towards tertiary graduates and most recently by enforcing doctoral education and training. The aim of these initiatives is to make highly qualified graduates available to the labor market with the ambition to achieve and maintain sustainable competitiveness of the national labor force (OECD 2011). There is consensus that if countries want to develop and maintain competencies and capacities for science, technology and innovation the education and training system needs to be strengthened at all its levels.
The career paths of Russian doctorates are explored based on three types of mobility: inter-sectoral, intra-sectoral and international mobility. The project focuses on two major interlinked issues: 1) mobility and internationalization, 2) skills and motivations for research career.
The career trajectories of doctoral holders are addressed in terms of career employment and effects on productivity (publications, patents, salary). This analysis is complemented by a second major issue, which aims to understand the role of motivations, experiences, professional shifts and other social phenomena in decision-making processes concerning career paths, and the decisions of opting for one type of mobility over the other, when mobile.
The study of Russian doctorate holders confirmed the main trend of modern R&D system, namely the intensification of international contacts and cooperation at all levels: individual, institutional and intergovernmental. The second major issue aims to understand the role of motivations, experiences, professional shifts and other social phenomena in decision-making processes concerning career paths, and the decisions of opting for one type of mobility over the other, when mobile.
This book contains the proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2012) which was organized and sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and technically co-sponsored by SPEE (Portuguese Society for Engineering Education), IGIP (International Society for Engineering Education), ROLE (Responsive Open Learning Environments) and IFIP TC3 (International Federation for Information Processing - Technical Committee 3 - ICT and Education).
CSEDU has become an annual meeting place for presenting and discussing learning paradigms, best practices and case studies that concern innovative computer-supported learning strategies, institutional policies on technology-enhanced learning including learning from distance, supported by technology. The Web is currently a preferred medium for distance learning and the learning practice in this context is usually referred to as e-learning or technology-enhanced learning. CSEDU 2012 is expected to give an overview of the state of the art in technology-enhanced learning and to also outline upcoming trends and promote discussions about the education potential of new learning technologies in the academic and corporate world.
This conference brings together researchers and practitioners interested in methodologies and applications related to the education field. It has five main topic areas, covering different aspects of Computer Supported Education, including "Information Technologies Supporting Learning", "Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment", "Social Context and Learning Environments", "Domain Applications and Case Studies" and "Ubiquitous Learning". We believe the proceedings, demonstrate new and innovative solutions, and highlight technical problems in each field that are challenging and worthwhile.
CSEDU 2012 received 243 paper submissions from 58 countries in all continents. A double-blind review process was enforced, with the help of the 297 experts who are members of the conference program committee, all of them internationally recognized in one of the main conference topic areas. Only 29 papers were selected to be published and presented as full papers, i.e. completed work (10 pages in proceedings / 30' oral presentations). 73 papers, describing work-in-progress, were selected as short papers for 20' oral presentation. Furthermore 37 papers were presented as posters. The full-paper acceptance ratio was thus 12%, and the total oral paper acceptance ratio was less than 42%. These ratios denote a high level of quality, which we intend to maintain and reinforce in the next edition of this conference.
The high quality of the CSEDU 2012 programme is enhanced by three keynote lectures, delivered by distinguished guests who are renowned experts in their fields, including (alphabetically): Joseph Trimmer (Ball State University, United States), David Kaufman (Simon Fraser University, Canada) and Hugh Davis (University of Southampton, United Kingdom).
For the fourth edition of the conference we extended and ensured appropriate indexing of the proceedings of CSEDU including DBLP, INSPEC, EI and Thomson Reuters Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Besides the proceedings edited by SciTePress, a short list of papers presented at the conference will be selected for publication of extended and revised versions in the Journal of Education and Information Technologies. Furthermore, all presented papers will soon be available at the SciTePress digital library.
The conference is complemented with two special sessions, focusing on specialized aspects of computer supported education; namely, a Special Session on Enhancing Student Engagement in e-Learning (ESEeL 2012) and a Special Session on Serious Games on Computer Science Learning (SGoCSL 2012).
Building an interesting and successful program for the conference required the dedicated effort of many people. Firstly, we must thank the authors, whose research and development efforts are recorded here. Secondly, we thank the members of the program committee and additional reviewers for their diligence and expert reviewing. We also wish to include here a word of appreciation for the excellent organization provided by the conference secretariat, from INSTICC, who have smoothly and efficiently prepared the most appropriate environment for a productive meeting and scientific networking. Last but not least, we thank the invited speakers for their invaluable contribution and for taking the time to synthesize and deliver their talks.