Теологический проект психологии религии Макса Райшле
This paper is devoted to the study of theological project of psychology religion, elaborated by the German Ritschlianist theologian Max Reischle (1858–1905). Reischle tried to integrate Neo-Kantian theory of knowledge and Dilthey’s hermeneutics, transforming the both into the one ground of its own theory. Reischle endeavoured to study phenomenology of religious consciousness by means of the original method, which consisted of three stages. First, the researcher has to imitate inner experience of the other (contemporaries or authors of ancient texts) as precisely as possible (hypothetic fitting into, hypothetisches Nacherleben). Hereafter, basing on introspection, they have to reconstruct some obscure experience, which looks like hints in text or is even not mentioned (interpolation). Finally, they compare the reconstructed experience with their own (comparison). According to Reischle, religious consciousness is realized in thumotic judgments (thymetische Urteile). These judgments deal with the notions of religious doctrine as well as with the main questions of philosophy, the latter being also of religious origin. Thumotic judgments imply unconditional worth and undoubted truth of their content, they are based on the emotional and moral-associated acceptance of the revealed character of the religious notions. It is impossible neither to prove nor to refute these personally meaningful assertions. Despite of pure theoretical character of Reischle’s research, his ideas influenced German philosophy and psychology of religion of the first third of the 20th century.