Housing search frictions and optimal search
By deriving a ‘housing market Hosios condition’, we show that the main conclusions of the seminal paper on housing search frictions by Wheaton (1990) were erroneously derived. We show that households may search too much, optimally, or too little, which is in contrast to the paper’s conclusion that they always search too little. Furthermore, we show that exogenous increases in housing vacancies always have a negative effect on house prices, given standard assumptions.
The paper is devoted to a problem of a regulation institutions design for the Russian sector of residential construction in terms of effects on a government policy to provide population by available and comfort housing. Focus is given to marginal costs of one square meter residential construction. This marginal price is fixed by Ministry for Regional Development to activate region authorities for removing off dilapidated and damaged residential construction. The next major criteria should be taken to assess effects from regulative/fixed marginal prices: (a) regional government activities at housing market (regional authorities as buyers); (b) regional government activities at housing market (regional authorities as residential constructers); (c) enforcement to reduce housing costs. The paper explores statistical data of one of the Russian region - Republic Sakha (Yakutia). Analysis of regional factors made housing more expansive in comparison with other regions is given. Maid conclusion says that fixed marginal price does not report a correct information concerning full residential construction costs, does not take into account regional factors effected to construction costs. There are institutional and as a consequence financial barriers to activate regional authorities to construct or purchase housing for accelerating a population removal from dilapidated and damaged residential construction.
This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces distortions, but the convergence is slow. Housing market rigidities, inadequate urban infrastructure, and inconsistent government policies prevent people from moving to the largest cities.
The present study analyzes the investment attractiveness of regional housing markets and housing markets of cities with a population of over 100 thousand people. The analysis of regional housing markets identified the following market groups as more attractive for investment in different segments of residential construction. It is shown that large cities and rapidly developing metropolises determine the investment attractiveness of the region’s housing markets.
This chapter is devoted to the analysis of the impact of the global financial crisis on the nascent housing market in Russia, which started developing less than 10 years ago. At the same time we make an attempt to estimate whether there were "bubbles" in this market. This chapter has the following structure.
It starts with an overview of the housing sector in Russia before the meltdown and analysis of the evolution of housing property rights. Next we look at both the supply side (housing stock and new construction) and the demand side of the situation in housing market before 2009. The section ends with a summary description of the situation in housing mortgage finance and affordability of housing, which is a big challenge for a developing housing market.
The second section analyzes the impact of the global financial crisis on the mortgage sector in Russia and highlights new trends in the housing sector. We focus on government anti-crisis measures in the housing market and the role of government-sponsored organizations. Two main areas of government intervention in the housing and mortgage markets are analyzed: state support of mortgage borrowers and the housing construction industry.
Next we raise the issue of the presence of housing bubble in Russia and analyze main determinants of housing price trends and their impact on housing market.
The chapter concludes with an outline of the housing and housing mortgage markets in Russia.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.