Трудовые траектории высокоресурных многодетных матерей
The period of maternity leave for multi-child mothers is generally longer than as compared with mothers with less number of children, and getting to job after a break in combination with an increased volume of family work is more difficult. When high-resource multi-child mothers return to the labor market, they expect not only a “motherhood penalty”, but also a “penalty” for being over-educated with a high probability. The result of resolving the conflict “motherhood vs work” for them most often is either a complete refusal of employment, or finding more flexible options in the field of precarious work, which often means less high requirements for the level of qualification and, as a result, lower income. Based on the series of in-depth interviews conducted by the author in Moscow and Voronezh with high-resource multi-child parents, including a list of questions about the working trajectories of women and also a number of questions about life practices, it is shown that the reverse side of the full or partial leaving from the labor market of multi-child mothers is intensive parenting and setting a high standard for children's education, including a scrupulous selection of educational institutions and a large amount of additional classes. Thus, the complete or partial loss of high-resource women as workers for the labor market is accompanied by a forthcoming significant non-economic effect, since society receives active translators of human capital to a new generation.
Materials was published based on the results of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference “Sustainable Development: Society and Economics”, held as part of the International Labor Forum - 2019, organized by the Government of St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg State University on February 28 - March 01, 2019. The collection of materials is intended for students, bachelors, undergraduates, graduate students and teachers of economic specialties of universities, scientific and practical workers.
It is for the first time when the phenomenon of the political class is being investigated in the Russian political science literature. In this edition, the political class is viewed as a community of persons professionally involved in the sphere of politics. Political elites, administrative and political bureaucracy, deputy corps, party functionaries, analyst center staff, expert community, political consultants, political journalists are regarded as important segments of the political class. The study of political participation of corporate business is also paid attention to. An important advantage is the combination of theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of the research, as well as a comparative perspective: the features of the formation of a political class in Ukraine and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe are considered.
Abstract: The paper analyses the role of vocational education in formation of professional trajectories of Russian employed population during the period 2005-2015. Based on longitudinal data we explore the differences between career paths of workers that had the experience of vocational training and workers without such experience. We contribute the debate regarding vocational training and its role in innovation and economic development utilizing methodology of sequence analysis and Markov chains with long memory (mixture transition distribution models (MTD)). MTD models suggest the analysis of categorical data sequences instead of quantitative data that is standard for this kind of research. Such methodological approach allows not only estimating casual effects of participation in vocational education programs on the wage level, but exploring how vocational training influences the whole career path. Our findings suggest that those workers who participate in vocational training have lower probability of different negative events in their careers including job loss. Moreover, mixture transitions distribution models suggest that for such workers the current career status determined by longer history of previous career events than for those employees that had not any experience of participation in vocational education programs. These results give the evidence that vocational education is important factor of success on the labour market, providing greater flexibility of career paths that is crucial in innovation development of the labour market and economy as a whole. Findings of the study also have important policy implications. Importance of vocational training on individual level suggests that investment in vocational education on societal level will bring positive returns. This kind of education provides the flexibility of individuals on the labour market, through vocational training workers obtain new skills and knowledge that allows them utilizing new technologies and innovations. Development of vocational education may be considered as policy-making instrument that can generate positive economic outcomes.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the major emerging Asian economies – India – to examine the role of human capital in asset prices.
The paper introduces the methods of assessing the effects of social assistance on work incentives, using representative Rosstat survey data as illustration. It also demonstrates the key steps of testing the hypothesis of the social benefits effect on work incentives, as well as the need for conducting multi-factor analysis coupled with impact evaluation methods. The key finding from descriptive analysis is that an average household that has recipients of social benefits among its members cannot rely on social benefits as a significant source of means of subsistence, therefore social transfers do not produce a sizeable effect on work behavior. Nevertheless, the authors propose a hypothesis that there are certain groups of social transfers beneficiaries whose work behavior may be strongly affected by social transfers. Firstly, this refers to recipients of social transfers, the size of which is comparable to the anticipated wage size. In such cases, social transfers can produce a negative employment effect. Secondly, this could refer to recipients, whose eligibility to social transfers is related to their belonging to a certain professional group. In this case, in all likelihood, social transfers create economic incentives to stay in these professional groups, reducing labor mobility. The testing and analysis of these hypothesis will be presented in forthcoming papers by the authors.
In this article, the authors examine the changes taking place in the social and labor structure of society, against the backdrop of the processes of mass informatization, globalization and the formation of network structures. The aim of the work is to consider a new trend in the labor market - Uberization, which is characterized by the establishment of horizontal links that replace the vertical hierarchy, when the link between the manufacturer and the consumer becomes an automated system. Thus, Uberization is a new stage in the formation of network structures in the labor market, described earlier by D. Pink and R. Florida. In these conditions, self-employment as a form of labor activity becomes especially important. The article reveals the main prerequisites for the emergence of Uberization and its characteristics.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.