Социально-философские перспективы безусловного базового дохода
The article concerns the problem of universal basic income (regular monetary payment «to each person regardless of their level of need or employment»). The author believes that this topic can become one of the most relevant for social-philosophical research. The author notes that although the problem has been of concern to philosophers and scientists for a long time, it has become especially relevant only recently – over the past ten years. The following reasons are given as an explanation: first, experiments on the introduction of a universal basic income in Western countries, second, the trend towards automation and technologization, and third, the transformation of the economy, which is becoming more and more precarious. The author notes that the topic of universal basic income has become relevant even in Russian science, however, not in social philosophy, as in the West, but mainly in economics. The author argues that, since the discussion about basic income in the economic dimension has already taken place, it should be expanded in a social-philosophical perspective. To do this, he raises a number of questions that will shed light on the social-philosophical nature of the problem of universal basic income – freedom, justice, social state, etc. The special focus of the article is on the curious ideological transformations made possible by the topic of basic income. First of all, basic income contributes to the emerging of new ideologies, such as post-capitalism. Secondly, basic income itself can be considered as a new ideology, which is a synthesis of other ideological trends – libertarianism, feminism, Marxism, etc. Thirdly, postcapitalism, which emphasizes basic income, opens up much more significant problems than replacing labor and turning all people into a precariat. The author hopes that this text will serve as the beginning of discussion of the topic in the context of social-philosophical knowledge.