The article is devoted to a comparison of robotics, аndroid science and some similar traits of modern neo-mythology‘s thinking. We compares the ideas of android (Humanlikeness) and early anthropomorphic myths. Particular attention is paid to the idea of modern man identity in the context of robotics and Android science.
The author reconstructs the theory of F. Varela with relevance to the hard problem of consciousness. This problem was touched by Varela in relatively late period of his work. However, the implications for dissolution of this problem can be found in his earlier works with H. Maturana. Theory of autopoietic systems ties life and cognition together, resulting in natural historical comprehension of consciousness and its functioning. Autopoiesis, understood as network of processes of production of components used as resources for maintaining these processes, sets organizational invariances, distinguishing living system from its milieu. The main criterion of living system is an ability to maintain autopoietic organization while undergoing structural transformations with environment. Structural plasticity leads to multiple realizability of autopoietic organizations, which, in turn, leads to radical conclusion on nature of knowledge. One can distinguish the knower and the known only contingently, for the structure of knowledge reflects cognitive structure of the knower. This intertwinement permits Varela to introduce the enactivist program, which presupposes not simply reform in the scientific research of consciousness but also rethinking the implications of scientific knowledge itself. Cognition is a sensorimotor constitution of the world. Therefore, consciousness is not an object of material nature among other objects but provides our cognitive access to nature. Varela intended to abandon the theoretical approach to the problem of consciousness. His aim was not to provide a new argument. This is a consequence of the enactivist position which, according to theory of autopoiesis, must be applicable to the knower himself.
Article represents the short analysis of conditions of penetration of Jesuits into Russia. In the center of attention is an influence of pedagogical system of Ignatiy Loyola – the founder of Society of Jesus - on formation of consciousness of the Russian aristocracy on the second half of 18-19 centuries and emergence of a phenomenon of the Russian Catholicism.
Starting from the Age of Enlightenment, a person’s ability of self-improvement, or perfectibility, is usually seen as a fundamental human feature. However, this term, introduced into the philosophical vocabulary by J.-J. Rousseau, gradually acquired additional meaning – largely due to the works of N. de Condorcet, T. Malthus and C. Darwin. Owing to perfectibility, human beings are not only able to work on themselves: by improving their abilities, they are also able to change their environment (both social and natural) and create favorable conditions for their existence. It is no coincidence that perfectibility became the key concept of the Idea of Social Progress proposed by French thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment, despite the fact that later it was criticized, above all, by English authors, who justi ed its organic and biological nature and gave a different evolutionary interpretation to this concept, without excluding perfectibility from the philosophical vocabulary. In this article, we address the opposition and mutual counterargu- ments of these two positions. Beyond that, we draw a parallel with some of the ideas of S. Kapitsa, who proved to be not only a critic of Malthusianism but also a direct disciple of Condorcet. In the modern age, the ideas of human self-improvement caused the development of transhumanist movement. Condorcet is more relevant than ever, and today his theory of the progress of the human mind, which in uenced the genesis of modern historical science, needs a rethinking in the newest perspective of improving the mental and physical human nature with the help of modern technologies.
The concept of Dionysianism becomes fundamental in the work of Russian symbolist Vyacheslav Ivanov in the 1900–1910s, which led him to development of an original theory of symbolism. For this poet and thinker, symbolism becomes an integral philosophy of art. Ivanov’s theory of symbolism incorporates aesthetics, ethics, theory of knowledge, philosophy of culture. The concept of Dionysianism formed in the process of Ivanov’s philological studies of Greek religion was marked by the influence of F. Nietzsche. However, under the influence of Russian religious and philosophical thought, Ivanov comes to conclusions that contradicted Nietzsche, concerning both philological and cultural-philosophical aspects of the origin of the tragedy. The present article discusses Ivanov’s perception of F. Nietzsche’s philosophy as well as points of divergence between Nietzsche and Ivanov in understanding the mythologem of Dionysus. Particular attention is paid to the theory of realistic symbolism, understood by Ivanov as a religious symbolism, with its focus on acquiring realia in rebus, which is, at its core, a noumenon. The article also discusses Ivanov’s ideas of convergence of the myth of Dionysus with the Christian religion, his interpretation of the cult of Dionysus as well as Ivanov’s main conclusions regarding the Dionysian cult and Christianity.
China, no matter what they say about its strategy in the US, is not going to challenge the existing world order or fit into it. China, trying to avoid open confrontation with the United States and Western countries, is building its own world parallel to the existing one, a world based not so much on geopolitics as on geo-Economics. At the same time, by its very existence, China proves the possibility of a path different from the West.
The article explores the peculiarities and specific features of phenomenological approach developed in the contemporary analytical philosophy. Despite the fact that the trust in phenomenological approaches continue to grow in analytical philosophy, it is necessary to recognize the presence of noticeable discrepancies between the classical transcendental phenomenology of E. Husserl and contemporary versions of phenomenology in analytical philosophy. The article analyses some of these discrepancies. It is shown that, unlike the skepticism of transcendental phenomenology in relation to scientific methodology in the research of consciousness, the analytical tradition of phenomenology is tuned for cooperative dialogue with science. Explained that phenomenology in analytical philosophy places great hopes on the possibility of making consciousness a subject of joint research work of neuroscientists and phenomenologists. The article claims that in the course of realization of this task, phenomenology in analytical tradition often starts to be interpreted from realistic, and partly from naturalistic positions, that doesn`t meet the project of transcendental phenomenology. As an illustration of this idea, certain approaches of analytical phenomenology are considered, in particular: phenomena are interpreted from the point of view of logical and linguistic analysis, intentionality is connected with the activity of the brain and is located in the natural world, phenomenal consciousness is interpreted as the awareness of a high order, and the phenomena assume a gradual nature and are often identified only with sensual experiences that suggest a correlative correspondence of substrate data of brain physiology. On the basis of this material it is implied some reasons to interpret phenomenological theories which are funded by analytical tradition, as an example of a specific phenomenology of non-transcendental origin.
The word "samurai" is firmly established in the modern Russian language and, along with Fujiyama, geisha and sakura, is one of the "calling cards" of Japan. However, it was not always, of course. This article traces the initial process of perceiving the concept of "samurai" in pre-revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union: from the 1890s, from the first military victories of rapidly modernizing Japan, to the Russo-Japanese War and further to the beginning of the Second World War. Initially endowed with signs of "childishness" or "femininity," softness and grace, the image of Japan is gradually becoming "manly" and is increasingly associated with the concept of "samurai." This concept itself corresponds at first with such qualities as belligerence and cruelty, but also loyalty to the lord and “knightly” honor; Often, following Nitobe Inazo, the best qualities of the Japanese are generally elevated to the samurai tradition. In the future, the Japanese appear in an increasingly caricature form as greedy, but powerless aggressors; At first, this image was not associated with the concept of "samurai", but by the 1930s. fused with it. At the same time, Soviet authors criticize the "feminine" image of Japan; both the ruling exploiter and the exploited worker most often have "male" traits. The article traces the early Japanese borrowings in domestic dictionaries of foreign words, reviews of the Japanese in the writings of Russian and Soviet writers, the characteristics of the country and its inhabitants in popular publications devoted to Japan, as well as propaganda texts and images.
500 years have passed since Niccolò Machiavelli had written The Prince and had forever changed the character and essence of political philosophy. In this work he touches upon almost every aspect of modern political thought. We will consider the most essential modern trends of Machiavellian study, identify the problems modern interpreters of Machiavellian philosophy face, and try to depict the contemporary image of Niccolò Machiavelli. Is he a «great patriot of his country» or a «teacher of evil»?