Семиотические ландшафты посткоммунистической ностальгии: На примере музеефикации советского прошлого
The focuses on the semiotic reflections of post-Soviet nostalgia in
three countries of the former socialist bloc – Germany, Estonia, and Russia. The main
attention is paid to the material and symbolic forms of nostalgia, which manifest themselves
as museumification and commodification of the Soviet past. In the German version,
the phenomenon of nostalgia emerged in the 1990 s, which is reflected in private
and commercial museums featuring everyday life of the GDR. The article compares
two expositions of two Berlin museums. There are several museums in Estonia related
to the Soviet past from the country's history, including museums of occupation. This
article discusses two cases of Estonian commemoration of the socialist period, the grim
KGB museum in Tartu and the ruined remains of Soviet military installations on the
island of Hiiumaa. The paper reveals inconsistency of perception of the Soviet past in
this Baltic country. The Moscow museums of the Soviet toy and the Yandex museum
show the symbolic and material forms of the existence of the Soviet past in modern
Russia in its nostalgic dimension. The article is based on materials from the included
observation and ethnography of museum spaces
This paper addresses the issue of public cultural services management by the example of event organization in cultural institutions. The Night of Museums event has been held annually in St. Petersburg and attracted more than 100 000 visitors for its fifth edition in 2012. A multistage study on this event has been organized aiming at exploring the potential of the large-scale event in development of public cultural services management both from the side of audience and cultural entities. The findings of the study indicate audience development within the event, implementation of innovative solutions through application of creative methods by cultural institutions and develop recommendations for effective provision of public cultural services.
The practice of swapping pins among participants in the Olympic Games has a long history (at least 90 years). This practice includes all participants in the Games: athletes, journalists, TV reporters, technicians, spectators, and others. Although most of the participants in this practice change with each Olympic Games, the tradition persists. The main question posed in this article is as follows: What is the meaning of Olympic pin exchange for participants? The answer to this question will explain why this tradition has proven to be so sustainable and inclusive. This task is also connected with the problem of understanding of the role of Olympic pins as objects of material culture and as intermediaries between participants of the Olympic Games.
The article analyzes the phenomenon of folk museification recent Soviet past - the emergence of proactive thematic Internet resources and the "folk museum" dedicated to the nostalgic representation of Soviet everyday life of the late thaw and stagnation.
In the years before and after the Second World War, chemical and related industries in a variety of countries experienced a surge in innovation and development. Industrial scientists and engineers put their efforts toward developing new technologies and experimented with manufacturing new products for civilian and military use. As a result, the pulp and paper industry became a space for considerable innovation. In Sweden, Johan Richter developed the Kamyr digester, a pulp cooker that run continuously and was adopted by industry within a decade. Prior to Richter, Soviet engineer Leonid Zherebov designed a similar cooker, with the same purpose – to drastically increase the production of pulp. After twenty-five years of experiments, Zherebov’s design failed, and Soviet factories began to produce pulp using imported Kamyr digesters. This article examines the history of continuous pulp cooking in the Soviet Union in order to better understand the nature of Russian technological innovation and its failures. It emphasizes the communication between different institutions involved as well as a range of technological, social, economic and political factors. In addition, it studies how foreign technology was introduced into Soviet industry. The paper contends that technological failures were emerged from the failure of Soviet forestry as a technological system due to a lack of open discussion between its builders and the scarcity of resources required for innovation.
The book is written by a group of researchers and students of the Higher School of Economics on the results of a three-year research project. It is dedicated to State Museum-reserve Tsaritsyno: a vibrant cultural space, in which different ideas and different concepts collide; that of history, culture, public space and its functions, norm, etc. Different logics of production of the atmosphere of the contemporary (post-Soviet , capital ) city intertwine there as well. The visitor of Tsaritsyno is the main protagonist of the book. This historic attraction works for him, and he himself defines and changes its content and the conditions for its development. The researchers addressed this contemporary visitor of Tsaritsyno more general theoretical and specific ethnographic questions. The book is illustrated by many photographs made by the participants of the project.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.