Разработка теста дедуктивного мышления: Структура конструкта и факторы трудности заданий теста.
In tIn this study we discuss the theoretical construct of deductive reasoning and propose a test aimed at its evaluation. The theory of mental models and belief bias effect in logical reasoning were taken as a conceptual framework.
In the first study, the two-factor structure of the deductive reasoning construct was revealed. The two factors underlying the construct were the sequential reasoning and the analysis of alternatives. In the second study, we cross-validated the two-factor structure and investigated the effect of mental models and belief bias on performance.
We concluded that two scales of the deductive reasoning test can be used for measuring two independent skills of deductive reasoning – the sequential reasoning and the analysis of alternatives. Each scale showed good psychometric characteristics and a clear structure. The validity of the test was supported by the concordance between the item difficulty from one hand and the number of mental models involved and item believability from another. Directions for further investigation are discussed.
In this article we look at the various quality criteria in relation to data, obtained in qualitative research . For this pourpose we are involved in theoretical and methodological discussion about strategies used qualitative methods. But the "quality" of qualitative research is unlikely to be included in the category of a priori rules. Certain principles can help improve the quality and credibility of qualitative research, while the agreement with them is not a guarantee of their quality.
Digital traces are often used as a substitute for survey data. However, it is unclear whether and how digital traces actually correspond to the survey-based traits they purport to measure. This paper examines correlations between selfreports and digital trace proxies of depression, anxiety, mood, social integration and sleep among high school students. The study is based on a small but rich multilayer data set (N = 144). The data set contains mood and sleep measures, assessed daily over a 4-month period, along with survey measures at two points in time and information about online activity from VK, the most popular social networking site in Russia. Our analysis indicates that 1) the sentiments expressed in social media posts are correlated with depression; namely, adolescents with more severe symptoms of depression write more negative posts, 2) late-night posting indicates less sleep and poorer sleep quality, and 3) students who were nominated less often as somebody’s friend in the survey have fewer friends on VK and their posts receive fewer “likes.” However, these correlations are generally weak. These results demonstrate that digital traces can serve as useful supplements to, rather than substitutes for, survey data in studies on adolescents’ well-being. These estimates of correlations between survey and digital trace data could provide useful guidelines for future research on the topic.
This article reports on the results of development of human mental abilities measurement method based on the stated theoretical positions. Such positions are represented by the following: the thesis formulated by M.I. Sechenov that a thought is generated in the process of establishing a connection between the object and its properties; the definition of thinking given by S.L. Rubinstein who wrote that in the process of solving a problem the object manifests its new properties and qualities, it shows a new side, a new content is "bailed out" of it, as well as the thesis about mental development of abilities formulated by V.D. Shadrikov.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.