Explicit (affective and cognitive) and implicit attitudes are differently associated with health behaviors. In order to integrate these attitudes in health-related decision-making models it is important to understand their relationships with values. The present study investigates the mediation role of explicit (affective and cognitive) and implicit attitudes on the link between values and behavior among adolescents with asthma and their healthy peers. Results: Among adolescents with asthma cognitive and affective attitudes mediated relationships between the value of an exciting life / health value and risky / preventive behavior. Implicit attitudes were not related to values and mediated the relationship between affective attitudes and preventive behavior. Among healthy adolescents affective attitudes mediated the relationship between the value of an exciting life and preventive behavior. Thus, valuing health or an exciting life is associated with the attractiveness and usefulness of health behaviors for adolescents.
Attitudes are positive and negative evaluations of objects. Cognitive attitudes refer to judgments about objects, while affective attitudes refer to feelings towards objects. Studying cognitive and affective attitudes is important, because they impact health behaviors. However, people’s judgments and feelings about objects are sometimes mixed, positive and negative at the same time. This phenomenon – affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence – plays a moderating role in attitude-behavior link. It is already known that adolescents express attitudinal ambivalence towards risky behaviors (alcohol and substance misuse) and that impacts their behaviors. In present study we investigated attitudinal ambivalence towards wider range of health-related objects: risky behaviors, healthy behaviors, family and the self. Because attitudinal ambivalence may change over the course of a lifespan, in the present study it is investigated in developmental perspective. We compared affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence towards health-related objects among younger (11–14 y.o.) and older adolescents (15–16 y.o.). The following differences among adolescents were found. Compared to younger adolescents, older adolescents have more contradictory affective attitudes (coexistence of positive and negative feelings towards health-related objects). They hold more ambivalent affective attitudes towards risky behaviors and family in particular. However, no differences were found in cognitive attitudinal ambivalence (coexistence of contradictory judgments about health-related objects) between the two groups of adolescents. Both groups of adolescents have more contradictory feelings towards health-related objects, compared to contradictory judgments about these objects. Practical applications of these findings in preventive programs for healthy lifestyle are discussed.
The article describes the results of the development of the Russian version of the brief Big Five questionnaire (TIPI; n = 415) that measures Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness. We confirmed the factor structure of TIPI using confirmatory factor analysis, established its satisfactory psychometric properties, and validated the questionnaire against other questionnaires, including Khromov’s Big Five Questionnaire, Personality Factors of Decision Making, New Tolerance / Intolerance for Uncertainty Questionnaire, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Dark Dozen questionnaire. The results indicated that 4 out of 5 traits measured by TIPI are related to tolerance for uncertainty in ways convergent with those obtained for the original English-speaking sample. We also report the differential relationships between Big Five traits measured with TIPI, on one hand, and personality traits affecting self-regulation. We also established a set of relationships between TIPI and the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) that suggested that both Dark Dozen and TIPI can be used as complimentary in measuring personality traits. All Big Five traits with the exception of Agreeableness as measured by TIPI were positively related to the adaptive regulation of uncertainty acceptance, measured as Vigilance using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire.
Coping with problems depends on a person’s causal attribution of the problems. Coping strategies and attitudes are different if the person thinks that the problem to be coped with is: (a) caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent and intervention; (b) created by somebody with hostile intent; (c) created by somebody with good intent (e.g., to create useful, developing difficulties, etc.) Opportunities of integration of approaches to coping behavior and to hostile intent attribution are discussed. Results of a study of coping with problems created by others vs. problems caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent are presented.
This study aims to identify and test sociocultural factors that moderate the link between national and ethnic identity among Russians. We suggest that interrelation between national and ethnic identity is a representation of intergroup relations, which, in turn, allows us to regard J.Berry’s cultural, historical, political and economic components of sociocultural context as moderators of this interrelation. The empirical test of this assumption shows that economic optimism (economic component) and perceived national discrimination (historical component) moderate the link between the two identities by making it stronger. Other elements of sociocultural context, described by Berry, show less clear patterns.
The studies of group cohesion and perceived integrity conducted by different researchers within the frame of two approaches to understanding group integrity problem are compared in the article. Causes and consequences of group integrity development are reviewed. The relationship between this construct and the efficiency of group activity are considered. The framework that comprises such widely used in social psychology concepts as group cohesion, group integrity and perceived group integrity is proposed.
Conceders the main fields of vocal therapy and vocal practices in psychotherapy. The vocal practices inside the particular fields of psychotherapy are shined out. Amongst them are expressive arts therapy, process-oriented psychology, ontotherapy etc. Single vocal psychotherapeutic practices are also mentioned: music vocal psychotherapy, vocal music therapy, vocal psychotherapy, transpersonal voice therapy etc. The possible models of vocal therapy are considered. The medical model of vocal therapy is viewed as a way to affect patient’s organism and personality. Psychological model is observed as a way for client’s self-expression and discovering his authenticity and wholeness. Some methods of vocal psychotherapy are discussed, among them are techniques for group vocal music psychotherapy in hospitals, vocalizations in altered state of mind, vocal holding techniques, free associative singing, chanting, meditations, relaxation and breathing techniques. Methods of small empirical investigations in the present field of study, such as observation, questionnaire surveys, self-reports, psychophysiological methods are mentioned. Origin of inner Self and formation of outer Self are described. The present model is related with the possibility of finding a human authentic voice. The ways of self-identification are described. It was envisaged that self-identity may be reflected in the way of how human’s voice sounds. The probable peculiarities of vocal sounds are described. The model of vocal therapy process for finding an authentic voice of inner Self is suggested. Besides, the classification of vocalizations and markers of different types of vocalizations are put forward. Types of vocalizations are related with vocal sounds of inner and outer self and matched with inner instances of personality, which appear in psychotherapy and in everyday life: inner client, inner therapist and inner visor. It is supposed that, just like in verbal psychotherapy, where gradual transformation from inner visor to inner client and inner therapist takes place, in vocal therapy the transformation would go from impressive and inauthentic vocalizations firstly to the whole spectrum of vocalizations and later to expressive and authentic vocalizations. The possible perspective of empirical research is suggested. The criteria, which will help the participants to assess the result of vocalizations are given.
The characteristics of the subject that mediate group influence and group functioning in situations of group moral decision making are considered. The sample includes 86 students aged 18–24. It is noted that during group discussions participants with higher levels of individual moral consciousness are likely to regress than to raise their level of individual moral consciousness. It is shown that in situations of individual opinion conflict members of group discussions exhibit bounded rationality, opportunistic tendency and passivity. Additionally, the manifestation of the above characteristics in situations of group moral decision making is meaningfully analyzed.
Solving a complex problem during interaction with a novel complex system (a virtual factory) is considered from view of dynamics of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. Performance of successful and non-successful participants is compared based on objective indicators (e.g., profit gained, actions on acquisition of information about the system and actions to control the system, eye movements, etc.) and subjective indicators (participants’ evaluation of various aspects of the problem and performance). Eye tracking has been conducted in the context of classification of participants’ work with: (a) information panels of the factory, and (b) panels with controls. It was postulated that: (a) looking at the information panels is related to knowledge acquisition, and (b) looking at the panels with controls and practical actions on the controls are related to knowledge application. It has been shown that in the initial stages of complex problem solving successful participants set cognitive aims linked to the understanding of the system rather than practical aims (i.e., gaining profit). Non-successful participants set practical aims rather than cognitive ones. When novel variables were introduced into the system successful participants started prioritizing cognitive aims compared to practical aims whereas non-successful participants weakened both cognitive and practical aims. In conclusion, a hypothesis is put forward that success or failure in the management of novel systems can be linked to the type and intensity of cognitive and practical goals which participants set by themselves.
The article presents the comparative analytic view over the discussion on personalization and personification as becoming-a-person processes. The existing status of the "personalization" and "personification" terms interpretation is considered contradictory due to the difference of ontological grounds of original personalization (V.A.Petrovskii) and personification (A.B.Orlov) concepts. It is offered and discussed an empiric way to investigate personalization and personification processes in terms of different verbalization forms – sign, metaphor and symbol.
Despite a great interest of modern psychologists and sociologists to the problem of identity there is still no consistent approach to definition, structure, mechanisms of development and functioning of identity. Possibilities of applying the identity model proposed within psychology of corporeity to interpretation of different forms of identity and understanding identification mechanisms are discussed. Senses of management / authorship and affiliation are considered as a universal phenomenological basis of identity experience.
Features of using social networks by teenagers and young adults are discussed; social-psychological consequences of such communication and their influence on the process of socialization in adolescents as a whole are analyzed. The results of empirical studies aimed at examination of relationship between parameters of psychological well-being and experience of communication in social networks are presented. It is noted that active inclusion of modern youth into informational space neutralizes a part of traditional features of adolescent socialization and is weakly connected with psychological well-being parameters except for loneliness experience and qualitative characteristics of communication.
In contemporary world information technologies (Internet, mobile phones, TV) serve as an essential part of human life, through which the whole range of his interests and activities is refracted. Researchers suggest that the information technologies are associated with a reduction in the role of families and direct interpersonal communication in the formation of the personality, as well as with changes in the role of values and the difficulty of identification. In this paper, we use graphic methodic to assess perception of technologies. We demonstrate that after taking into account the individual drawing style of respondents, the proximity of technological objects to the "Self" has been associated with a large distance between family, personality traits, interests, values to the "Self". Close patterns of results were obtained on two samples of students and adults (n1 = 161 and n2 = 123) for the three objects - the Internet, mobile phone and TV. A deeper analysis of graphical methodic shows that this result should be interpreted in general terms of personal relationship to various spheres and aspects of her life, whereas psychological content and consequences of changes in the structure of objects should be further studied. Moreover, identification with the Internet, mobile phones and TV do not mediates relationships between subjective distance of the family from the “Self” and subjective well-being / ill-being and coping. The possibilities and limitations of the use of graphical methodic to assess perception of technologies are discussed.
The paper discusses changes in the cognitive paradigm, characteristic of the last decades and driven by the development of brain science and neuroimaging methods. The course of the changes and their main sources are outlined, posing the question about the possible future research scope of cognitive psychology.