Explicit (affective and cognitive) and implicit attitudes are differently associated with health behaviors. In order to integrate these attitudes in health-related decision-making models it is important to understand their relationships with values. The present study investigates the mediation role of explicit (affective and cognitive) and implicit attitudes on the link between values and behavior among adolescents with asthma and their healthy peers. Results: Among adolescents with asthma cognitive and affective attitudes mediated relationships between the value of an exciting life / health value and risky / preventive behavior. Implicit attitudes were not related to values and mediated the relationship between affective attitudes and preventive behavior. Among healthy adolescents affective attitudes mediated the relationship between the value of an exciting life and preventive behavior. Thus, valuing health or an exciting life is associated with the attractiveness and usefulness of health behaviors for adolescents.
Background: Subcultures often develop distinct fashion style, which eventually becomes their “trademark” and represents the culture. In post-soviet countries, “gopniks” are one of the most prominent subcultures that is also present in popular media. Nevertheless, it is unknown to which extent the established image of “gopniks” in common knowledge can influence low-level perceptual processes such as search asymmetry. Objective: Our aim was to examine the influence of specific features of “gopnik” image on visual search. Design: We conducted two experiments to investigate familiarity and threatening of the “gopnik” features. In experiment 1, participants had to find a man-like stimuli in two conditions: a man-like silhouette with vertical stripes on his trousers among similar figures, but with horizontal stripes and vice versa. In experiment 2, participants had to search for the same stripes pattern only (but without man-like silhouette). Conditions were the same as in the first experiment. The experiment 3 was conducted in order to replicate results from previous two experiments with better control. Results: Overall, our results demonstrated visual search asymmetry for man-like (with horizontal stripes on trousers) and gopnik-like (with vertical stripes on trousers) objects, which could not be explained by the basic feature differences of these stimuli. Conclusion: We suggest that nowadays in Russia “gopniks” are perceived as a familiar group rather than dangerous subculture with real power. Their image was successfully transmitted to the general cultural background for post-soviet communities
Attitudes are positive and negative evaluations of objects. Cognitive attitudes refer to judgments about objects, while affective attitudes refer to feelings towards objects. Studying cognitive and affective attitudes is important, because they impact health behaviors. However, people’s judgments and feelings about objects are sometimes mixed, positive and negative at the same time. This phenomenon – affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence – plays a moderating role in attitude-behavior link. It is already known that adolescents express attitudinal ambivalence towards risky behaviors (alcohol and substance misuse) and that impacts their behaviors. In present study we investigated attitudinal ambivalence towards wider range of health-related objects: risky behaviors, healthy behaviors, family and the self. Because attitudinal ambivalence may change over the course of a lifespan, in the present study it is investigated in developmental perspective. We compared affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence towards health-related objects among younger (11–14 y.o.) and older adolescents (15–16 y.o.). The following differences among adolescents were found. Compared to younger adolescents, older adolescents have more contradictory affective attitudes (coexistence of positive and negative feelings towards health-related objects). They hold more ambivalent affective attitudes towards risky behaviors and family in particular. However, no differences were found in cognitive attitudinal ambivalence (coexistence of contradictory judgments about health-related objects) between the two groups of adolescents. Both groups of adolescents have more contradictory feelings towards health-related objects, compared to contradictory judgments about these objects. Practical applications of these findings in preventive programs for healthy lifestyle are discussed.
The article describes the results of the development of the Russian version of the brief Big Five questionnaire (TIPI; n = 415) that measures Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness. We confirmed the factor structure of TIPI using confirmatory factor analysis, established its satisfactory psychometric properties, and validated the questionnaire against other questionnaires, including Khromov’s Big Five Questionnaire, Personality Factors of Decision Making, New Tolerance / Intolerance for Uncertainty Questionnaire, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Dark Dozen questionnaire. The results indicated that 4 out of 5 traits measured by TIPI are related to tolerance for uncertainty in ways convergent with those obtained for the original English-speaking sample. We also report the differential relationships between Big Five traits measured with TIPI, on one hand, and personality traits affecting self-regulation. We also established a set of relationships between TIPI and the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) that suggested that both Dark Dozen and TIPI can be used as complimentary in measuring personality traits. All Big Five traits with the exception of Agreeableness as measured by TIPI were positively related to the adaptive regulation of uncertainty acceptance, measured as Vigilance using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire.
Coping with problems depends on a person’s causal attribution of the problems. Coping strategies and attitudes are different if the person thinks that the problem to be coped with is: (a) caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent and intervention; (b) created by somebody with hostile intent; (c) created by somebody with good intent (e.g., to create useful, developing difficulties, etc.) Opportunities of integration of approaches to coping behavior and to hostile intent attribution are discussed. Results of a study of coping with problems created by others vs. problems caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent are presented.
This study aims to identify and test sociocultural factors that moderate the link between national and ethnic identity among Russians. We suggest that interrelation between national and ethnic identity is a representation of intergroup relations, which, in turn, allows us to regard J.Berry’s cultural, historical, political and economic components of sociocultural context as moderators of this interrelation. The empirical test of this assumption shows that economic optimism (economic component) and perceived national discrimination (historical component) moderate the link between the two identities by making it stronger. Other elements of sociocultural context, described by Berry, show less clear patterns.
The studies of group cohesion and perceived integrity conducted by different researchers within the frame of two approaches to understanding group integrity problem are compared in the article. Causes and consequences of group integrity development are reviewed. The relationship between this construct and the efficiency of group activity are considered. The framework that comprises such widely used in social psychology concepts as group cohesion, group integrity and perceived group integrity is proposed.
The study examines framing effect of the metaphor on judgments about a category. It is also tested if the metaphor can increase objectivity of the category, that is, strengthen the effect of the categorical name. For these purposes the category of “depression” and related metaphors of “enemy” and “swamp” were chosen (these metaphors derived from the content analysis of the federal media from December 2018 till December 2019). According to the theory of conceptual metaphor, framing effect is caused by adding metaphorical statements into description of the category. It was found that the “swamp” metaphor as opposed to the “enemy” metaphor, reduced estimated guilt for a person who committed social misconduct due to depression. Both metaphors differentially reinforced the belief that “external help” is necessary to overcome depression. Namely, the “enemy” metaphor affected the assessment of judgments about the “depression” as a category, whereas the “swamp” metaphor influenced the assessment of judgments about an example – a depressive episode of a particular person. These results expand understanding of the framing effect of the metaphor by showing its dependence on the “level” of a judgment (category or example). Additionally, the study demonstrated that a metaphor combined with a categorical name can enhance the perceived “objectivity” of a category.
There are many physiological and psychological factors, which are thought to affect performance on various cognitive tasks. Even phrasing of a task can change results dramatically. There are studies showing that verbal suggestions can increase performance on tasks such as Stroop test. Some findings show that suggestions can have automating and de-automating effect on cognitive processes. However, there is insufficient information about the influence of hypnotic and non-hypnotic suggestions on higher-order processing such as problem solving. Several authors link hypnosis phenomenon with top-down cognitive control, proposing for consideration of insight problem solving in this context. This paper aims to analyze current literature on the association between hypnosis and suggestions on the one hand and cognitive control and creative problem solving on the other. The effect of hypnotic suggestions on insight problem solving is also investigated by looking at cognitive control.
The article considers the main fields of vocal therapy and vocal practices in psychotherapy. The vocal practices inside the particular fields of psychotherapy are shined out. Amongst them are expressive arts therapy, process-oriented psychology, ontotherapy etc. Single vocal psychotherapeutic practices are also mentioned: music vocal psychotherapy, vocal music therapy, vocal psychotherapy, transpersonal voice therapy etc. The possible models of vocal therapy are considered. The medical model of vocal therapy is viewed as a way to affect patient’s organism and personality. Psychological model is observed as a way for client’s self-expression and discovering his authenticity and wholeness. Some methods of vocal psychotherapy are discussed, among them are techniques for group vocal music psychotherapy in hospitals, vocalizations in altered state of mind, vocal holding techniques, free associative singing, chanting, meditations, relaxation and breathing techniques. Methods of small empirical investigations in the present field of study, such as observation, questionnaire surveys, self-reports, psychophysiological methods are mentioned. origin of inner Self and formation of outer Self are described. The present model is related with the possibility of finding a human authentic voice. The ways of self-identification are described. It was envisaged that self-identity may be reflected in the way of how human’s voice sounds. The probable peculiarities of vocal sounds are described. The model of
vocal therapy process for finding an authentic voice of inner Self is suggested. Besides, the classification of vocalizations and markers of different types of vocalizations are put forward. Types of vocalisations are related with vocal sounds of inner and outer self and matched with inner instances of personality, which appear in psychotherapy and in everyday life: inner client, inner therapist and inner visor. It is supposed that, just like in verbal psychotherapy, where gradual transformation from inner visor to inner client and inner therapist takes place, in vocal therapy the transformation would go from impressive and inauthentic vocalisations firstly to the whole spectrum of vocalisations and later to expressive and authentic vocalisations. The possible perspective of empirical research is suggested. The criteria, which will help the participants to assess the result of vocalisations are given.
An individual's motivational beliefs shape the choice of both educational and career paths. At the same time, previous studies indicated that men and women differ in academic motivation. However, the research to date has focused on cross-sectional design, rather than on longitudinal studies on gender differences in academic motivation. Our research aimed to examine gender differences in academic motivation employing the self-determination theory within longitudinal design. Students of a Russian research university participated in the study (N=316, 63% females). Participants were examined at the beginning of their study and before the graduation. According to the results, there was no significant effect of gender on intrinsic motivation during the first and fourth years of the university. However, women reported higher level of extrinsic motivation compared to men in both the first and fourth years of study. Specifically, the gender difference in introjected motivation was shown to be significant during the first and fourth years of study. At the same time, gender differences in external motivation were significant in the first year, but non-significant at the end of the study. To conclude, women tend to attain an outcome that is separable from learning itself. These results suggest that women involved in learning activities to comply with internal pressure from parents, teachers and society.
The characteristics of the subject that mediate group influence and group functioning in situations of group moral decision making are considered. The sample includes 86 students aged 18–24. It is noted that during group discussions participants with higher levels of individual moral consciousness are likely to regress than to raise their level of individual moral consciousness. It is shown that in situations of individual opinion conflict members of group discussions exhibit bounded rationality, opportunistic tendency and passivity. Additionally, the manifestation of the above characteristics in situations of group moral decision making is meaningfully analyzed.
Solving a complex problem during interaction with a novel complex system (a virtual factory) is considered from view of dynamics of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. Performance of successful and non-successful participants is compared based on objective indicators (e.g., profit gained, actions on acquisition of information about the system and actions to control the system, eye movements, etc.) and subjective indicators (participants’ evaluation of various aspects of the problem and performance). Eye tracking has been conducted in the context of classification of participants’ work with: (a) information panels of the factory, and (b) panels with controls. It was postulated that: (a) looking at the information panels is related to knowledge acquisition, and (b) looking at the panels with controls and practical actions on the controls are related to knowledge application. It has been shown that in the initial stages of complex problem solving successful participants set cognitive aims linked to the understanding of the system rather than practical aims (i.e., gaining profit). Non-successful participants set practical aims rather than cognitive ones. When novel variables were introduced into the system successful participants started prioritizing cognitive aims compared to practical aims whereas non-successful participants weakened both cognitive and practical aims. In conclusion, a hypothesis is put forward that success or failure in the management of novel systems can be linked to the type and intensity of cognitive and practical goals which participants set by themselves.
The present article discusses results of study which was focused on clarifying expectations of Russian employers in regard to values of their potential employees. Employers’ value preferences were identified through an expert survey of 174 leaders of big Russian companies. Values are considered as one of the significant criteria in assessing the degree of compliance of person-organization fit in the context of recruitment. According to the Schwartz classification, the data analysis revealed several preferred values by the sample: universalism, stimulation, achievements, security and independence. Special attention was paid for making value profiles with differentiation for the size of organizations. Application of results is based on the prospect of implementation in hiring practices and HR-brand correction to increase the efficiency of investments in human capital. In addition, scientific relevance and novelty of the results include testing a specially crafted diagnostic tool - vignettes for evaluating value preferences. Moreover, research results will expand the space of scientific awareness about poorly studied value preferences of Russian employers.
The article presents the comparative analytic view over the discussion on personalization and personification as becoming-a-person processes. The existing status of the "personalization" and "personification" terms interpretation is considered contradictory due to the difference of ontological grounds of original personalization (V.A.Petrovskii) and personification (A.B.Orlov) concepts. It is offered and discussed an empiric way to investigate personalization and personification processes in terms of different verbalization forms – sign, metaphor and symbol.