Reforms in the Field of Pensions, Education and Housing, as Portrayed in the Russian Mass Media
Welfare reforms in contemporary Russia are based on partial redistribution of responsibilities and resources from the state to other actors, including private business and civil society. Reforms in old age pensions, housing and utilities, primary and secondary education have affected wide social groups and have triggered public debates and protests, reflected in the mass media. This article analyses how these reforms are portrayed in three Russian media outlets representing different political positions—Rossiiskaia gazeta (official government media outlet), Novaia gazeta (independent media outlet belonging to the liberal opposition), and Zavtra (patriotic media outlet belonging to the nationalist opposition). The two independent papers have divergent critical perspectives on reforms. These three Federation-wide newspapers represent the range of political positions that are articulated publicly on non-securitized issues in contemporary Russia.
The RepEval series of workshops started in the midst of a boom of word embeddings with the goals of promoting new benchmarks for vector space meaning representations, highlighting the issues with existing benchmarks and improving on them. In addition to proposals for new evaluation tasks, it has played an important role by providing an outlet for critical analysis, negative results, and methodological caveats (reproducibility, parameters impact, the issue of attribution of results to the representation or the whole system, dataset structure/balance/representativeness). Three years later, mainstream NLP is switching to contextualized representations, but we are still facing many of the same issues: reliable intrinsic metrics are scarce, which means that we rarely know what features of representations make them successful for a given downstream task. This makes development of new meaning representations and their fine-tuning a slow and expensive process with too many variables - even more so than before. The 3rd edition of RepEval aims to foster the discussion of the following issues: • approaches to intrinsic and extrinsic evaluation of all kinds of distributional meaning representations; • evaluation motivated by linguistic, psycholinguistic or neurological evidence, its predictive power, and interpretability of meaning representations; • the (in)stability of vector representations, best practices for reproducible and reliable experiments; • evaluation of representations at subword level, especially for morphologically complex languages; • evaluation of phrase, sentence, paragraph and document-level representations: evidence of compositionality, further diagnostic tests, and how much the preservation of abstract syntactic information actually contributes to performance; • formal analysis of properties of embedding spaces and their impact on downstream tasks; • the contribution of representations per se vs. other modeling choices to system performance in extrinsic evaluations; • validation of evaluation methodology and findings in cross-lingual studies; • specialized vs general-purpose representations, and whether the latter have inherent limits in downstream tasks; • internal states of end-to-end systems as meaning representations, and ways to make more sense of them. In the long run, the methodological and practical contributions of RepEval will add to the discussions on what kinds of representations work best for what tasks, how we can interpret and reliably optimize them, and to what extent it is possible to create cross-task meaning representations that would be necessary for general AI.
We define and study representations of quantum toroidal gln with natural bases labeled by plane partitions with various conditions. As an application, we give an explicit description of a family of highest weight representations of quantum affine gln with generic level.
In this article authors attempted to discover (identify and describe) changes of the symbolical meanings/marks/codes of political transformations within visual representations on the basis of Russian fashion magazines materials covering period between 1980 till 2013 years. On the example of 918 magazines’ and 135 Mersedes-benz Fashion Week Russia 2012/2013 photos, this research completed in screening design of studying processes of political changes with “steps” connected to significant stages of regime transformations. Authors concludes that through fashion magazines, intensively filled by visual tokens, public political processes are not just reflected which allows to clarify their semantically-communicative codes, rather is ongoing anticipatory legitimization of social order and political regime changes, probably initiated and/or supported from powered groups.
In this, the third paper of the series, we construct a large family of representations of the quantum toroidal gl(1)-algebra whose bases are parameterized by plane partitions with various boundary conditions and restrictions. We study the corresponding formal characters. As an application We obtain a Gelfand-Zetlin-type basis for a class of irreducible lowest weight gl(infinity)-modules.
Cinematic representations not only strongly influence our interpretation of history (Ferro 1992: 315), but are also important for understanding key aspects of Soviet disability policy. At the beginning of the twentieth century the new medium of cinema enjoyed immense popularity in many countries due to the efforts of commercial filmmakers to produce popular entertainment in the genres of melodrama, comedies and adventure stories. After the October Revolution in Russia, however, cinema was mainly used for education and propaganda (Lawton 1992: 2). Visual arts not only represented, but also contributed to, political discourses in Soviet society by using old and new imaginaries for classifying citizens. This chapter explores the ‘iconography’ of disability in Soviet film in order to reveal the shifting and contested meanings associated with the visual representation of disabled bodies
Gendering Postsocialism explores changes in gendered norms and expectations in Eastern Europe and Eurasia after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The dismantlement of state socialism in these regions triggered monumental shifts in their economic landscape, the involvement of their welfare states in social citizenship and, crucially, their established gender norms and relations, all contributing to the formation of the post-socialist citizen. Case studies examine a wide range of issues across 15 countries of the post-soviet era. These include gender aspects of the developments in education in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Hungary, controversies around abortion legislation in Poland, migrant women and housing as a gendered problem in Russia, challenges facing women’s NGOs in Bosnia, and identity formation of unemployed men in Lithuania. This close analysis reveals how different variations of neoliberal ideology, centred around the notion of the self-reliant and self-determining individual, have strongly influenced post-socialist gender identities, whilst simultaneously showing significant trends for a "re-traditionalising" of gender norms and expectations. This volume suggests that despite integration with global political and free market systems, the post-socialist gendered subject combines strategies from the past with those from contemporary ideologies to navigate new multifaceted injustices around gender in Eastern Europe and Eurasia.