ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЕ ЦИФРОВЫЕ ПЛАТФОРМЫ: ОТ КОНЦЕПТА К РЕАЛИЗАЦИИ
Th e article provides and examination of new phenomena, Government Digital Platforms, which possibly can become a disruptive innovation transforming relations among authorities, business and society. Transactions costs decrease, public control and transparency enforcement over government decision making and service provision processes are in the focus of digital transformation by means of government platforms. Th e authors analyze the emergence of the term “Government Digital Platform”, investigate the peculiarities of adopting platform-based approach by government information systems, compare government digital platforms with commercial platforms. In conclusion the authors forecast future trends for applying government digital platforms in Russian public administration system.
Discusses a way to solve the problems of monitoring and managing urban infrastructure by creating a modular information system. An innovative method of collecting information based on two technologies of the “Internet of things” LoRaWAN and NB-IoT is proposed, the requirements for the smart city modular information system are formed, allowing to implement the functionality of a smart city in a single subject and replicate this decision in other regions. This approach will make it possible to significantly reduce the costs of the development and operation of the information system, carried out both on the basis of state and private financing. In addition to the technical side of the issue, the article considers the existing legal framework for the “Smart Cities” in the Russian Federation and suggests development in the direction of creating a unified legal approach with consolidation of powers around the relevant Federal Ministry. An example of successful experiences in implementing a digital platform for city management in one of the neighbouring developing countries is given.
The sociology of work paid close attention to the factory and office as the physical and social space where the labor process was directly carried out and where workers faced managerial supervision, control, and power. The article discusses new decentralized forms of labor organization based on digital platforms which connect self-employed workers with clients and customers. The rapid spread of platforms in many spheres of the economy (from the IT sector and creative industries to consumer services, taxi services, and delivery) puts the task of rethinking the concepts of labor sociology, labor legislation and social policy models on the agenda. Generally, organizational decentralization was discussed in the context of increasing the autonomy of workers. However, information and communication technologies made possible not only the effective coordination of dispersed workers, but also tight algorithmic control. Workers who are outside the enterprise, both physically and legally, nevertheless experience a strong influence of digital platforms on the key conditions of their work and employment. The article discusses the nature and types of digital work platforms, sources of platform power, forms of algorithmic management, the role of user ratings, as well as the possible regulation of platform employment. The author conceptualizes the problems of labor autonomy and control within the typology of platforms: marketplace vs. shadow corporation.
Government Digital Platform (GDP) is a new phenomenon in digital governance that transforms digital public services towards better quality and citizens’ demands. In this article we discover and verify key features and peculiarities of platform-based transformation for public services provision. Within Russian context we analyze two projects: digital public services portal www.gosuslugi.ru and vacancy occupation on Russian civil service gossluzhba.ru. To perform the analysis, we explore the projects on the availability of platform features: providing exchange, government dominated, transactional, innovative and lean. We conclude that platform-based approach to digital services provision and design can become appropriate mechanism to improve government information systems.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.