The problem of the administrative, economic and social sustainability of a group consisting of neighboring regions with close ties has no clear solution yet. Should closely-tied regions in the long run form a centralized system of administrative bodies, compress their budgets into one, and construct unified social programs, or not? To answer this question, in the article we describe a case that represents the paramount form of cooperation amongst closely-tied regions. It is the case of the so-called multi-structured region, or “matreshka-style” region, where all the relationships culminated. Analysis of the history and the present conditions of inter-regional cooperation, its areas and forms, in a unique multi-structured region of Russia, namely the Tyumen region1, shows that such centralization has its limits, and instead of “rough” centralization, more sophisticated procedures (programmed forms of economic cooperation, legally introduced forms of administrative coordination, structured distribution of management functions, combination of partially connected inter-regional budgetary processes) should be elaborated to provide the sustainable development of closely-tied regions.
The basic administrative paradigms, as it is shown, are not capable to overcome the global contemporary administrative criris. The arguments in support of this hypothesis are distributed into two leading groups. An outline for a new administrative paradigm is presented.
Th e paper looks into how the law formulated by A. Wagner can be used to stimulate economic growth in a post-crisis period. Th e major principles of the concept of fi scal economy are given. It is mainly focused on identifying regularities in perpetually growing state spending, which can be explained by increasing the fi scal needs of the state. On the basis of data from 1960 to 2015, this regularity is confi rmed for the G7 countries and Russia. It is shown that state spending goes up mostly due to growing pension payments. Th e authors present the results of Wagner’s Law testing obtained by researchers based on the analysis of data on both developed and developing countries. It has been discovered that it is impossible to conclude categorically about a positive eff ect of fi scal stimulation on economic growth. Th e main factors which aff ect the effi ciency of the applied fi scal measures are described. Russia is given as an example, where the growth of state spending due to an increase in fi scal needs has not made it possible to ensure the necessary economic growth rate due to its low effi ciency. Th e authors have found out that the main cause of the continually growing budget spending is a large share of the state presence in the Russian economy. Th is slows down the process of its recovery growth, which does not allow for realizing the existing potential. It has been concluded that state spending effi ciency must be improved, among other things, due to a structural transformation of state spending in the budgeting system of the RF.
The paper represents a complex analysis of public debt as one of the major tools of micro-economic policy, through which a modern state can directly or indirectly affect the condition and development of the national economy. The analysis results are given for modern concepts explaining how the amount of public debt affects microeconomic development. It is shown that a growing public debt may cause both a positive and a negative effect on microeconomic processes, which makes it possible to reach a conclusion about the contradictory character of debt funding the economy. The essence and nature of the Russian Federation’s public debt is revealed as an important component of the Russian economy’s operating mechanism at the present time. The RF public debt dynamics are presented and projected values of its growth are given for the years 2016-2018. A brief description of the characteristics of RF debt policy is provided. It is noted that one of its objectives for the next few years is the need to adapt to the changing conditions in the external and domestic financial markets. One hazard of growing public debt is identified given the structural misbalances and external economic shocks, since it may result in a bigger dependence of the national economy on external and internal borrowings, which, in turn, will provoke additional risks for the development of the Russian economy. It is shown that in the countries with developing markets, growing public borrowings may cause negative macroeconomic consequences. It is proven that in order to enhance the stimulating effect of public debt on the macroeconomic processes the state needs to develop an efficient debt strategy, which would clearly define the economic boundaries of public debt use.
Th e following paper deals with the issue of the Russian administrative reform of the 2000s. Th e subject of analysis is the relationship between the extent of inclusivity in the reform process and its outcomes. To study this relationship we start by focusing on the federal stage of the reform’s design, outlining institutions, involved actors and their strategies. We claim that due to the closed nature of the reform, its offi cial Conception was highly incoherent. Following this, we turn our attention to the implementation of the reform in the Russian regions. We illustrate this process by outlining one case of the reform in the Republic of Karelia, based on interviews with representatives of bureaucracy, civil society and the expert community. Here we also demonstrate that greater engagement by interested groups results in better implementation of reform. Th en we introduce simple regression to trace the relationship between two major directions of administrative reform – one based on the new public management idea of cost effi ciency and the other grounded in the public governance call for greater community participation. Our model shows that these directions are hugely contradictory due to the logical incoherent Conception of the reform. We suggest some possible solutions to deal with this problem to some extent, which will require an even broader set of actors involved in the reform process. Th erefore, looking at examples from the federal and regional dimensions of the Russian administrative reform, we argue that a more open regime within a policy subsystem with a broader circle of participating actors will lead to a more coherent content of policy change and better implementation of the initial conception.
The paper looks into the specifics of cross-border investments related to changes in the direction of capital flow. The growth factors regarding the export of capital have been identified from the point of view of the Neo-Keynesian theory of investment, which describes a situation when the economy of a country demonstrates a stable excess of the gross saving rate (gross saving to GDP ratio) over the gross accumulation rate (gross accumulation to GDP ratio), which can be the result of forcing exports and/or rapidly growing prices for the main export commodities. The paper presents the results of the evaluated international investment activity of the Russian Federation in 2018–2019, formed with standard components. The main indicators, characterizing financial stability and positions of the Russian banking system given the sectoral limitations, have been reported. The key trade and investment positions of the Russian Federation and the EU countries have been analyzed. Calculations have been made to demonstrate the volume of direct Russian investments in the EU countries within 2010–2017. Some peculiarities have been identified and the presence of asymmetry in the investment cooperation between the EU and the RF has been confirmed. Specific features of the Russian export of capital have been revealed. A range of factors, preconditioning a growth of flow of Russian bank capital to the countries of the EU, has been formed. The main parameters of the international investment activity of Russian banking institutions have been presented and some data have been given on the geographical distribution of foreign assets and liabilities of the Russian bank sector by groups of countries and individual (most attractive for Russian investment) countries of the world. It has been concluded that supporting European expansion of the national banking institutions could be one of the prioritized directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the banking sector.
The paper considers the transformation of the public funding mechanisms of theatres during the period from the last years of the USSR and early years of postSoviet Russia up to the present. It analyses the differences between models applied at different times. Several parameters of these models are taken into consideration, including the requirements that public bodies impose on the activities of theatres due to funding, and special features of budgetary tools which among other things characterize the approach to the determination of amounts of funding transferred to the theatres. Four models of public funding are juxtaposed with the state cultural policy objectives in theatrical activity set by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal statutory and regulatory enactments. Th e hypothesis that there is no direct orientation towards such objectives is put forward and fi nds its confi rmation. A new model based on the public grants mechanism that meets the requirement of being policy objective-oriented is proposed.
The planning of the territories' development as well as the analysis of their capacity for an effective cluster policy have recently been blocked by the abscence of the appropriate instruments to support strategic decisions in the area of public management. At the same time, many such instruments exists on the level of business sector planning. Strategic management provides various tools allowing the development of the best plan for a company' development, and the means to evaluate the plan's implementation. Modification of the Analytic Matrix of McKinsey, as shown, is a possible variant for the evaluation of the territories' development.
This paper analyzes the development of forms and methods of interaction between government agencies and the experts’ community, public organizations, and citizens under the influence of a whole host of factors, including a transition to networked forms of administration; the production and exchange of big data; the dynamic development of information and communication technologies; and the development of the need for various interest groups, members of the mass media, and citizens to comment and influence government decision-making. The goal of the paper is to demonstrate that open government and increasing citizen activity is a two-way street. The paper uses the results of the monitoring by experts in 2014 of the implementation of principles and mechanisms of openness in federal executive agencies.
One of the paper’s tasks is to show that government bodies today face the extremely difficult challenge of not merely informing citizens about decisions that are made but also maintaining the smooth operation of mechanisms that are able, given the current level of social development, to ensure that the interests and expectations of as many stakeholders as possible are taken into account. The paper also analyzes issues related to streamlining the current mechanisms of openness.
The authors regard these technologies and mechanisms of openness and public participation in government administration as interconnected elements of a new, nascent model of public administration.
Th ere is a critical spatial component in the emerging cooperative Russian planning model for economic growth across the federation. Although in Russia, as in the EU, this spatial modeling for joint action and cooperation has not entirely displaced the older model of competitive fi scal federalism and public policy doctrine of the 1980s, the newer cooperative model, emerging from the globalization of supply chains and cross-regional externalities, encourages integration rather than competition within larger functional macro-spaces. It embraces both cross-regional and cross-national pooling of human and other resources. Th ere has been considerable Russian research on regional integration (Shishkov, 2001; Butorina, 2011; Kolesov, 1996; Kulikov, 2002) and internationalization (Vardomskiy, 2002; Kosolapov, 2005; Belousov, 2011; Skatershchikova et al., 2002; Tsygankov, 2004). Th is paper contributes to the existing research by developing a new database to map the strategies of regional authorities. In this paper, we develop three case studies to show program development and implementation of bilateral and multi-lateral strategies. Our information represents a complete survey of selected regions from the material available at this time, showing design and strategy, and some implementation. Our survey is the fi rst attempt we are aware of that traces the new cross-regional arrangements.
In developed competition jurisdictions, excessive pricing is more a subject of academic and expert discussions than an actively used instrument of competition enforcement. Russian competition enforcement is an exception in this regard. During the last ten years the Russian competition authority, the Federal Antirust Service (FAS), made several hundred decisions on the violation of rules prohibiting excessive pricing. The question remains whether Russian enforcement is consistent with international experiences, and which part of enforcement limits a positive welfare effect. To achieve this objective the article explains the targets of excessive price enforcement, the legal standard for excessive pricing, and remedies applied in Russian competition law. The main conclusion is that the selection of targets does not generally contradict the objectives of competition enforcement. There are clear theories of harm specifi c to two of the main target groups: dominant exporting companies that apply third-price discrimination in the domestic market vis-à-vis export markets, and dominant companies that increase prices after deregulation, in case there is no new entry. Standards for proving price excessiveness represent a questionable part of enforcement, and they oft en turn out to be weak under judicial review. The application of either lower or higher standards for establishing price excessiveness results in decreasing the deterrence effect. A fear of decreasing deterrence explains the recent shift from ex-post intervention to ex-ante price remedies.
In this article, the adaptation of personnel is considered from the perspective of the modern approach of social identity, according to which the personal involvement of a young specialist in the new social and professional environment is the basis of the desire to continue their activities in the organization. Main hypothesis was that positive social identity is associated with the actions in the course of adaptation to enhance cognitive, axiological and behavioral aspects of the activity, the main place among which is information-psychological support of young specialist from the head, mentor and team with the inclusion of a specialist in joint activities.
The aim of the study is to identify socialization factors, the most significant for young civil servants, which have a direct impact on the formation of their positive social identity. We consider as the main factors the acceptance by a young employee of the status of a public servant, the motivation of a public servant, attitudes to common activities and a desire to enlarge contacts with management and colleagues, social and labor activity. The method of research was a survey (questionnaire) of 109 young professionals who experienced socialization practices in federal and regional government bodies, and municipal employees. The study revealed that the information and psychological support of the young specialist by his leader, mentor and team, when the new employee is included in common activities, is one of the main factors of socialization. This article concludes with propositions for possible areas of improvement of the process of socialization of young professionals in public administration at various levels.
Retail trade presented a most liberalized market segment since the beginningof 1990s in the Russian economy. Suddenly, the state was brought back in bymid-2000s. Th e Federal Law ‘On Main Provisions for State Regulation of TradingActivity’ was adopted aft er continuous and furious debates. Where did a demandfor the state regulation come from? Which arguments were suggested by majorpolitical and market actors? How did political and symbolic struggle develop ondiff erent stages of this debate? What outcomes and compromises were achievedeventually? Th e author tackles these issues using the data collected from two seriesof in-depth interviews with the market actors and political experts as well asrecords from the meetings of ministerial expert groups.
Creative industries are considered as the phenomenon that addresses a number of economic and sociocultural issues in many countries and cities. In Russia, despite the fact that creative industries show significant potential for development in major cities, its state support is still “dotty” and non-systemic. In the official document “Principles of the State Cultural Policy” creative industries are defined as activities that combine capitalization of cultural products and their market positioning. Furthermore, certain business activities were outlined in the sector of creative industries. However, no managerial decisions in this direction of the “Principles” implementation have followed yet. The purpose of the article is to analyze the prospects for the development of creative industries state regulation in Russia. In order to achieve this goal we provided an overview of approaches to the definition of the creative industries as an economic sector, analyzed the concept of the life cycle of emerging industry with regard to creative industries, using examples from the international experience, and also we evaluated trends of the creative goods and services market in Russia. The article concludes that the scheme of the life cycle of emerging industry with state regulation measures distributed in time is the most adequate managerial technology for Russia’s creative industries, which allows them to move to the stage of a sustainable growth. The analysis has shown that, on the one hand, Russia’s creative goods and services have a low competitiveness level in the international market but, on the other hand, they generate a growing domestic demand. Entering the creative industries global market requires comprehensive state supported measures, relevant to the stages of the life cycle specific for the creative industries in the cities and regions of Russia. In conclusion, we propose some essential directions of state regulation to address the most pressing issues at this stage.
This paper analyses the problem of road and transport infrastructure of Moscow. At first, several analytical models of large cities are presented and thus, problems of Moscow are described. Next, a model, describing causal relationships between various problems of the road and transport infrastructure of the city is formulated. Finally, priorities of development are identified, as well as short term and long term actions, aimed at improving the situation in the city.
The Administrative permit system is an important tool to protect the constitutional order, the rights and legitimate interests of citizens, public health and morals, national security in any national legal regime.
Earlier researches on the Russian permitting system don't include the issues related to the assessment of the number of permit types and the quality of regulatory of permitting activities. The article aims to fill this gap. It presents a study of the Russian permitting system using both the legal and statistical methods of research.
The authors identified 22 forms of permitting activity, which are divided into two groups. The first group includes 9 typical (the most abundant) forms of permitting activity. The second group included atypical forms, which are numerically small permits. 541 permits has been revealed during the inventory, including 465 standard and 76 atypical.
The authors investigated the quality of regulatory in this area. A proper regulatory basis does not exist in respect of 5% of permits, detailed legal regulation - in respect of 10% of the permits. Administrative regulations have not been approved in respect of 35% of permits.
The article describes the shortcomings of the Russian system of permits. Systemic problems are related to the lack of codified law on permitting activity. The most significant problems are: lack of legislative definition of permits, policies and performance standards; the absence of legislation establishing the closed lists of permits; lack of a unified accounting system of permits. The authors provide methods of solving these problems.