[Рец. на кн.] Срничек Н. Капитализм платформ / Пер. с англ. и науч. ред. М. Добряковой; Нац. исслед. ун-т «Высшая школа экономики». М.: Изд. дом Высшей школы экономики, 2019 (197-202)
The reviewed book describes the transformation of industrial capitalism into digital, facilitated by big data and developed IT. The author argues that the global market economic situation is what leads to transformation. The book gives us an idea on platform evolution, starting with analyzing the reasons for them emerging, continuing on to the typologies of modern platforms while highlighting their economic strengths and weaknesses, until finally predicting future wars between economic platforms, certain manifestations are already apparent in our time, according to the author. This work might be of use to those who want to know about the typology of various electronic-information platforms established based on their respective means for generating profit. The author defines labor market changes conditioned by an increase in unemployment and life expectancy, during a time when people are working closely with IT infrastructure, based on the example of the USA and other countries dealing with a similar social-economic situation.
The article offers a point of view on the Russian civilizational project from the perspective of comparing the national features of Russia’s development and the global expansion of digital capitalism. The author places the Russian civilizational project in the context of processes that will inevitably have – and already have – an impact on modern Russian society and economy. Digital capitalism is as relevant a phenomenon for Russia as it is for any other modern country. The global context and modernization are inextricably linked. But when we talk about modernization, even in the most general way, we cannot exclude the national peculiarities of its implementation, which say a lot about the country itself and its culture. In the context of the Russian civilizational project, the main issue will be to understand why, unlike other modernizing waves, digital capitalism has so quickly become embedded in the space of Russian economic life and Russian culture. What exactly in our culture created such a fertile ground for the phenomenon? It is likely that the absence of established capitalist institutions played a role in the introduction of digital practices. But, as in every culture, there is also something special about Russian culture that accelerates the integration of society into the reality of digital capitalism.
The present paper is devoted to the study of the mechanics of agent-informational clustering in a social network on the example of user segmentation tasks taking into account an influence criterion. The main features of data generated by social networks (social big data) and metrics that characterize influential network nodes are considered. A review of community-building algorithms based on the theory of social networks, as well as clustering methods based on machine learning, is carried out. Metrics for assessing the quality of segmentation are presented. The results of the application of methods (selected on the basis of the performed analysis) to a test dataset are shown. The limitations of the applicability of considered approaches and possible problems during the implementation of algorithms in the field of social network analysis are described. Evaluation of the effectiveness is performed.
The article offers an analysis of the transformations of the concepts of “work”, “leisure”, “idleness” and “spare time” in the context of the extinction of classical labor practices that were determined by industrial capitalism. Modernity is characterized by blurring the boundaries of work and personal space. At the same time, the Aristotelian definition of practical activity as the one that is aimed at achieving an applied result remains relevant. However, the digitalization of work and leisure leads to the blurring of phenomena, which sometimes does not become the subject of understanding both the culture and the person himself. What is happening leads to the fact that the created vacuum of meaning and understanding in relation to the mentioned above phenomena/concepts is used by the system of digitalization of capitalism, only increasing alienation. For social philosophy, the differentiation of these concepts with regard to the transformations of the economic model becomes particularly relevant. The author attempts such a conceptual analysis. As a result, it is shown that analysis of labor and freedom could be undertaken only within the framework of appeal to the “free time”, that should be cleaned from cultural senses.
The article considers the problems that may accompany the application of an unconditional basic income from a socio-philosophical point of view. The author focuses on the question of the human value in a society where work will become either a luxury for the successful or a punishment for the poor. Using the methodology of cultural-historical epistemology, the author reconstructs the concepts of human value in a capitalist society. Employment and profes- sional self-realization are the most important components of modern selfconsciousness, which cannot be abandoned when considering the concept of unconditional basic income. The author points out that the very idea of basic income, which has a significant popularity in society, is connected, first of all, with the loss of competing theories with capitalism. As a result, utopian thinking moves from radical transformation to the modernization of the existing capitalist system. Secondly, the discussion around basic income is caused by the very development of capitalism, which is becoming digital and completes the centralization of capital and production capacity. The problem of workers' deprofessionalization follows from the effectiveness of technical means. Accordingly, it is from this perspective that the problem of human value, which is no longer needed by modern digital and platform capitalism as a producing unit, should be considered. In conclusion, the author proposes to address the problem of constructing images of the future without work from the standpoint of philosophy and revalorization of the individual.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.