Jihād in the Mamlūk Sultanate
This paper focuses on the theory and practice of jihād in the Mamlūk Sultanate, especially
during the Circassian period (1382-1517). Some ideas of Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328), Ibn Khaldūn
(d. 1406), Ibn Kathīr (d. 1373), Ibn al-Naḥḥās (d. 1411), as well as scholars of the pre-
Mamlūk epoch are taken in consideration. The authors explore the issue of understanding
jihād as the responsibility of the community (farḍ al-kifāya) and/or personal duty (farḍ al-
ʿayn) and the role of jihād ideology in the inner- and international Mamlūk politics.
This article deals with the problems of Tripoli County coinage, created during the First Crusade. In particular, it considered the period from the beginning of the minting of the first coins, which began in 1109 after the capture of the fortress of Tripoli until the fall of the city under the onslaught of the army of the Egyptian Sultan al-Kilaun Alfie. The basis of this study was the analysis of images of copper, silver and gold coins of Tripoli County. Also, in this paper, it was used the studies of Russian and foreign authors – experts in the field of numismatics and history. As a result of the study it was observed borrowing and imitation in this period coins of other countries, especially France and Venice. Over time, the coin on the image underwent some changes.
This article explores protest tactics in Russian cities, stressing the liminalityof spatial contestation practices. In this authoritarian context, spatial contestation typically has a liminal character, where citizens employ strategic ambiguity of their actionsvis-a-vis (a) legal regulations, (b) official discourse, and (c) transcripts of legitimate beha-viour. Showing how urbanites develop creative and subversive infrapolitical forms ofresistance, the article contributes an analysis of the ways in which public space in thecity can be appropriated from below, temporary protest communities formed and activecitizenship claimed under non-democratic regime conditions.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.