Some Notes on the Schemes of Temporal Logics in Late Neoplatonism and in the Works of Origen and Gregory of Nyssa
The article analyzes some key moments in the history of temporal logics in late antiquity (conception of integral time, relationship between temporal and eternal, extended and instant in the systems of Iamblichus, Proclus, Damascius and Simplicius), and genesis of Christian forms of temporal logics, which transform the everlasting homogenous time of κόσμος into history of universal salvation, alterate unextended νῦν, moment of psycho-physical time of late Neoplatonists, with καιρός, eschatologically charged instant of decision and act that can interrupt the continuity of time and to achieve instantaneously the end, τέλος of history.
The work discusses an example of unexpected similarity, in the dissolve of series of logical temporality problems, between some textes of the late Neoplatonists (Iamblichus, Proclus, Damascius) and the last Leo Karsavin's manuscript, "On th Time" (1949).
Control and analysis of the timing of computations are crucial to many domains of system engineering, be it, e.g., for ensuring a timely response to stimuli originating in an uncooperative environment or for synchronizing components in VLSI. Reflecting this broad scope, timing aspects of systems from a variety of domains have been treated independently by different communities in computer science and control. Researchers interested in semantics, verification, and performance analysis study models such as timed automata and timed Petri nets, the digital design community focuses on propagation and switching delays, while designers of embedded controllers have to take account of the time taken by controllers to compute their responses after sampling the environment, as well as of the dynamics of the controlled process during this span. Timing-related questions in these separate disciplines have their particularities. However, there is growing awareness that there are basic problems that are common to all of them. In particular, all these subdisciplines treat systems whose behavior depends upon combinations of logical and temporal constraints; namely, constraints on the temporal distances between occurrences of events. Often, these constraints cannot be separated, as intrinsic dynamics of processes couples them, necessitating models, methods, and tools facilitating their combined analysis. Reflecting this fact, the aim of FORMATS is to promote the study of fundamental and practical aspects of timed systems, and to bring together researchers from different disciplines that share interests in modeling and analysis of timed systems and, as a generalization, hybrid systems. Typical topics include (but are not limited to): – Foundations and Semantics: Theoretical foundations of timed systems and languages; comparison between different models (such as timed automata, timed Petri nets, hybrid automata, timed process algebra, max-plus algebra, probabilistic models) – Methods and Tools: Techniques, algorithms, data structures, and software tools for analyzing or synthesizing timed or hybrid systems and for resolving temporal constraints (e.g., scheduling, worst-case execution time analysis, optimization, model checking, testing, constraint solving) – Applications: Adaptation and specialization of timing technology in application domains in which timing plays an important role (real-time software, embedded control, hardware circuits, and problems of scheduling in manufacturing and telecommunication, etc.)
The problem of time in Gregory of Nyssa has been reopened in several recent studies. After a review of these new solutions, the author proposes a more formalised approach taking into account our present knowledge of the logical properties of the infinite sets.
Observing the history of reception of Origen’s intellectual heritage by Russian theologians and philosophers of the past few centuries, some key moments and figures are discernible. Those figures are Grigory Skovoroda (1722–1794), Vladimir Solovyov (1853–1900), Sergei Bulgakov (1871–1944), Nicolay Berdyaev (1874–1948) and George Florovsky (1893–1979). Those authors' significance for our outline is determined by (1) their key role in the evolution of Russian theological and philosophical thought and – at the same time – (2) by the fact that those authors’ own intellectual evolution and/or (3) their ideas’ reception by their contemporaries proceeded in close connection withthe problem of Origen. So the process of reception of Origen’s intellectual heritage in Russia was substantially conditioned by the controversies raging around the key representatives of the so-called “Russian religious philosophy.”
By sequential reactive system we mean a program which operates in the interaction with the environment permanently receiving data (requests) from it. At receiving a piece of data a program performs a sequence of actions (response) and displays the current result. Such programs usually arise at implementation of computer drivers, online algorithms, control procedures. Basic actions performed by these programs may be regarded as generating elements of a certain semigroup. This consideration opens the way to model sequential reactive systems by ﬁnite state transducers that operate over semigroups. This model of computation is suitable for synthesis, optimization, veriﬁcation and testing of sequential reactive systems. In this paper we originate a framework for developing veriﬁcation techniques for sequential reactive systems by utilizing ﬁnite state transducers as a formal model. To this end we introduce a LTL-based formal language which may be suitable for speciﬁcation of the behaviour of sequential reactive systems and adopt a well known LTL-based model checking techniques for veriﬁcation of ﬁnite state transducers against these speciﬁcations.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.