Экзистенциальная антропология после Варлама Шаламова
In article it is shown that the philosophical anthropology undergoes the radical conceptual shift caused by tragical experience of the XX century. The existential anthropology believes special type of communication in "boundary situations" (K. Jaspers) when people reveal in "authenticity", and routine forms of adaptation to reality depreciate. In "existential communication" the essence of the person as the center of reasonable, healthy and good will to life is shown. However "the philosophical belief" in such essence is called in question if living conditions in "a boundary situation" go beyond human. Conditions of the "terrestrial hell" described by Varlam Shalamov in "The Kolyma stories" are that. The experience of the Kolyma penal servitude comprehended through art perception of the writer showed that philosophical anthropology if her concepts are built on the base of an apriorizm or are taken out to the sphere of transcendental, is false and loses trust to itself. The philosophical anthropology in "camp prose" of Shalamov is not an abstract conceptual design, but a part and continuation of a vital context from which the vital destiny of the writer is not separable.
In the ontological bases of this philosophy there is no place eternal and the invariable "human essence" building the person to top of being hierarchy. "The Kolyma hell" does not divide existence and essence of the person and does not oppose them, it establishes between them special connection. The essence has an effect just when hell devastates it. It finds reality at the last boundary of resistance to hell. This anthropology places reflection about the person in "a boundary situation", but does not put it over it.
If this experience is acquired, the philosophical anthropology will not remain former. The reality of terrestrial hell will be its touchstone.