Микроистория реисламизации в бывшем колхозе
The paper traces a microhistory of the return of Islam to the public sphere examining it at the local level of a distinct Muslim congregation(jama‘at) in Northern Dagestan. The most serious impact of the dissolution of the Soviet kolkhoz system was the division of a single community into two separate congregations in the mountains and the lowlands. The emergence of Islam in the public sphere in the 1990s brought about an abrupt polarization of Dagestani society, which was divided into several antagonist factions of the so-called or labeled Salafis and traditionalists. However, the congregation’s majority has been changing its religious orientation according to the situation, siding sometimes with one or other faction.
In the monograph authors describe transformation of the agrarian relations in the subject of the Russian Federation for the considerable period of time. This research will be useful for the representatives of managerial practice, scientists, graduate students and students who are interested in problems of the village and methods of their decision.
The case of a Sufi shrine of the Dagestani origin in Turkey examined in the article relates to the history of shared transnational Sufi networks. The naqshbandiyya-halidiya brotherhood of the Ottoman origin once moved from the Middle East to Russia’s borderlands in the Eastern Caucasus and then came back to the Ottoman Empire from the North Caucasus. Dagestani Sufi networks and holy places represent a specific kind of interactions between the Muslim elites in the Middle East, the North Caucasus, the Volga-Ural region, and Anatolia from the late nineteenth century up today. The biographies of Muhammad and Sharaf ad-Din from Kikuni buried in Turkey are well documented in various written sources, epigraphs, and oral histories. They participated in the 1877 Uprising, were exiled in the Volga region, and then immigrated to the Ottoman Empire. Their biographies show that the Naqshbandiya-Khalidiyya often crossed political boundaries and ideological barriers established in the region during the demarcation of the possessions of the Ottoman Turkey and the Russian Empire. The exchange of territories and subjects between Turkey and Russia over the past one and a half centuries led to the emergence of hybrid identities. The article traces a micro-history of an identity in a muhajir (immigrant) village community in Western Anatolia. Contrary to popular belief, the Sufi brotherhood never represented a single elusive player in the “Big Game” between the Great Powers. Rather, it included numerous rival factions whose leaders formed complex relations with each other and with local political elites. Sufi ritual networks were and still are closely connected to more local networks of sacred sites (ziyarats) in the regions.
The Reader includes commented Russian translations of the major normative texts on Islamic and customary law in Arabic which were composed in Dagestan from the 17th through the first third of the 20th centuries. Most of these monuments were never published in Russian. A considerable part of them is kept in manuscripts in state and private collections. These works and documents show a gradual transformation of Muslim legal culture, power and society after the North Caucasus was involved in the political and legal space of tsarist and early Soviet Russia. In addition, the book includes studies on the history of Islamic justice and law in the region introducing readers into the current state of international research in this field. The focus is made on theory and practice of Islamic and customary law, treatiseas on different questions of fiqh, legal deeds and legislation/ The reader addresses first of all to undergraduate students specializing on history, law and culture of Islam in Russia. It can be used as a reference book in university courses related to particularities of Islamic and customary law in Russia as well as to a general history of Islam and Muslim societies in the colonial period in Russia and worldwide.
Russia's European South as a macroregion formed in the late imperial and Soviet periods. It that time Russia's Caucasus was shaped as its integral part. The whole region is often regarded a backward and closed borderland that opposed to all modernization processes reaching it late. In this article the author argues that this stereotypic narrative was uncritically borrowed by some politicians and scholars from the Russian colonial literature of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. It should be rethought basing on first-hand sources from region. In reality, Russia's Caucasus quickly answered to all challenges that reached it from the imperial core. After the end of the Caucasus war a long series of reforms started in the region. They ended already under the Soviet rule and resulted in making Caucasus as integral part of the Russian polity for more than half a century.
This study examines intercultural relations in the Republic of Dagestan (RD) in the North Caucasus, Russia. RD is the most multicultural and multilingual republic in the Russian Federation. The research used the hypotheses and measures developed in the MIRIPS project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Our goal was to test three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We also examined the role of a separation strategy in intercultural relations. The sample included members of the largest ethnic groups of RD: Avars (N = 100), Dargins (N = 116), Russians (N = 101) and members of other ethnic groups, such as Kumyks, Lezgins, Tabasarans, (N = 121). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic groups, and simultaneously for the whole sample. The results showed that perceived security promoted support for multicultural ideology, tolerance, and integration among the whole sample. The contact hypothesis was not supported: number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had no significant impact on tolerance and integration in the whole sample. Preference for integration promoted life satisfaction and self-esteem in the whole sample. We also found that the separation strategy was positively associated with life satisfaction among members of ethnic groups in RD.