The article analyzes the fundamental principles of Islamic conception of caliphate as an ideal model of Islamic rule. The author also considers the views of modern Sunni thinkers on caliphate in the light of historic evolution of Islamic rule and today’s state of the Muslim world.
This article deals with the problem of a discrepancy between the law and rights as the concepts of Islamic legal thought and modern science. A proposed solution suggested by the author is to examine the approaches towards these concepts existing in the modern legal science. In addition, this work provides a number of examples of the law and rights’ interpretation in Islam. This article is an interdisciplinary study of rights, Islamic legal culture, Sharia and Fiqh through the prism of Islamic knowledge, legal theory and legal policy.
This paper deals with materials of the medieval treatise Muqaddima dar aswala wa ajwaba dar radd-i rafadha li ba'd-i muhaqqiqin. Supposedly, the author of this work was a famous Muslim scholar and theologian 'Ali b. Sultan Muhammad al-Harawi al-Qari. This essey written in a form of questions and answers, describes, according to its author's position, the proper relation of faithful Muslim (Sunni of Shafi religious school) to the 'followers of blameworthy innovations' (mubaddi) and 'apostates' (rafadha, Shia), and noteworthy that the author doesn't distinguish between these two religious categories. This work is a bright example of disputes among different religious and political tendencies took place in the medieval Iran and Central Asia.
The article considers the Soviet roots of Islamic rise at the micro level of the individual farm in Northern Dagestan. The author comes to the conclusion that the post-Soviet re-Islamization of the village in 1990s was not "revival" of the local pre-revolutionary Islamic tradition, destroyed during Soviet political repression. The foundations for the Islamic rise of the 1990-ies were laid in the jamaats of collective and state farms, set up in the mountains and in the plains in the second half of the twentieth century. Kolkhoz was not an intermediary between the Soviet authorities and the local society, it would stand with the Muslim community, but had given the last resources for existence.
The paper traces a microhistory of the return of Islam to the public sphere examining it at the local level of a distinct Muslim congregation(jama‘at) in Northern Dagestan. The most serious impact of the dissolution of the Soviet kolkhoz system was the division of a single community into two separate congregations in the mountains and the lowlands. The emergence of Islam in the public sphere in the 1990s brought about an abrupt polarization of Dagestani society, which was divided into several antagonist factions of the so-called or labeled Salafis and traditionalists. However, the congregation’s majority has been changing its religious orientation according to the situation, siding sometimes with one or other faction.