Russian NEET Youth: Characteristics and Typology
The article analyzes the basic characteristics of Russian youth excluded from employment and education, known as NEET youth (NEET means “not in employment, education, or training”). Data from the 2014 Population Survey on Problems of Employment serve as the empirical basis. In Russia, one out of every eight young people aged 15 to 24 years is both unemployed and not in school. A low level of education and a lack of work experience are the basic factors significantly increasing an individual’s likelihood of belonging to the NEET group and extending the duration of any period of idleness. Young people with health problems form a special risk group that is almost completely excluded from employment and has extremely limited potential for receiving a professional education. The labor potential of economically inactive Russian NEET youth is low. Using ILO methodology, only one-tenth of young people in this group can be classified as members of the potential labor force.
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
Youth unemployment and joblessness are major issues for national governments and international organizations across the globe. In this respect, the school-to-work transition challenge is increasingly raising the interest of companies, education and training institutions, families and young people themselves, who are often involved in precarious and illegal forms of employment worldwide. In the field of industrial and labour relations, the school-to-work perspective seems particularly suitable for policy formulation and assessment: the broad and complex range of tools, strategies and policies for enabling youth training and their access to the labour market is deserving of a closer analysis at an international level in a time when jobless recovery threatens national economies. In this connection, this volume of the "Adapt Labour Studies Book-Series" has been set up with a view for achieving a better understanding of the causes, consequences and possible responses to the issue in a global dimension through an interdisciplinary and comparative approach.
The focus of this paper is on youth unemployment in Italy and Russia: in both countries, youth unemployment rates (YURs) are higher than adult (or total) ones. Despite these general trends, there are significant regional differences in YURs and above-average YUR regions tend to cluster close to each other. Moreover, a distinction between “North” and “South” regions seems appropriate for both countries. The purpose of this study is to identify key determinants of YURs in the Russian and Italian regions, for the period 2000–2009. We also search for the existence of distance spatial effects. In particular, we estimate a modified Arellano–Bond model for the regional YUR, including some explanatory and control variables (e.g. regional GDP in PPP, regional population density, regional total unemployment rate), together with year dummies and North/South dummies. The use of distance matrixes enables important analysis to be conducted on the role played by spatial effects, which turn out to be significant. Also the negative impact of the 2008–2009 crisis is statistically confirmed (at least in the case of Italy). The relevant policy implications are highlighted in the conclusions.
The size and persistence of youth unemployment has become unacceptable in some European countries, particularly in Southern Europe. Stagnation in labour productivity, on the other hand, goes back to the 1990s and even worsened after the burst of the crisis. A further evidence is that labour market reforms in many countries introduced, over the past twenty years, a set of newly designed job contracts that allowed the use of temporary work. We describe these phenomena and countries heterogeneity in four dimensions: labour productivity, youth unemployment, EPL (Employment Protection Legislation) and temporary work, and their dynamics.
The purpose of this study is to identify the common and different determinants of youth unemployment in Eastern and Western regions of Russia, especially searching for the existence of spatial effects. We tested two main hypotheses. The first hypothesis consists in the existence of a difference between the processes occurring within the Western and Eastern regions and an asymmetry of the processes of influence of Western and Eastern regions on each other. Our second hypothesis is based on the differences in the determinants of youth unemployment in the Eastern and Western parts of Russia. To test these hypotheses, dynamic panel models were estimated by the Arellano–Bond method. These models included four boundary weighted matrices (west-west, east-east, west-east, east-west) and four types of explanatory variables: (i) variables characterising the demographic situation in a region; (ii) variables on the migration processes in a region; (iii) variables characterising the economic situation in a region; and (iv) variables on the export-import activity of a region. Although we were searching for structural determinants of youth unemployment and for spatial effects in East and West Russia, we also investigated the effect of the 2008-09 financial crisis. The main policy implications of the econometric results have been briefly considered in the final section.
This paper focuses on the determinants of the labor market situation of young people in developed countries and the developing world, with a particular emphasis on the role of vocational training and education policies. We highlight the role of demographic factors, economic growth and labor market institutions in explaining young people's transition into work. Subsequently, we assess differences between the setup and functioning of the vocational education and training policies across major world regions as an important driver of differential labor market situation of youth. Based on our analysis, we argue in favor of vocational education and training systems combining work experience and general education and provide some policy recommendations regarding the implementation of education and training systems adapted to a country's economic and institutional context.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.