Вклад системы СПО в развитие человеческого капитала: опыт стран Европейского Союза
The article provides an overview of the best practices of the European
Union in the field of vocational education and training (VET). The selected projects
from vocational educational organizations in Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the
Netherlands, Norway, Croatia and some other countries deal with training workers
for high-tech sectors of economy, as well as for reintegration of yearly school leavers
to education. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of public-private
partnership in the field of VET, the most effective organizational solutions and
models of cooperation among educational organizations, business structures and
governmental bodies. The best foreign experience in the field of qualified employees’
training for the post-industrial economy, as well as in the field of social inclusion,
can be used for the development of the VET system in the Russian Federation.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the outcomes of the financial optimization process launched by the recent reforms in the Russian higher education sector and its impact on access to higher education, its quality and competitiveness within the sector. The study of the economic performance of higher educational institutions includes complex analysis of financial and educational components of their structural dynamics and their impact on their development strategy.
Design/methodology/approach – The methods used in the study of the segmentation of the higher education sector involve a combination of theoretical developments in economics and the modeling of the economic behavior of universities on the market for educational services, procedures for the evaluation of transaction costs in the markets with asymmetric information and recent conceptions of the interrelation of factors affecting quality and accessibility of higher education.
Findings – In this paper, the economic potential of Russian universities is considered, making use of a segmentation of the higher education sector, based on sampling of state and municipal higher education institutions from different industry groups, depending on their development strategy under changing social and economic conditions. The research data for 2006-2009 help to define five clusters of the higher educational establishments with different approaches towards public funding and different strategies.
Originality/value – Based on the research data, the paper evaluates the current situation in the Russian higher education sector and some skewed structures of the reforms and outlines some policy implications.
The article is an essay about the sociological theories of shame, with a particular focus on the shame theory of T. Scheff, where the socio-psychological functions of shame are considered with regards to poor people. The main issue under consideration is that the understanding of the poverty-shame nexus and the study of the consequences of shame in the life experience of poor people entails such factors such as social exclusion and isolation and the weakening and rupture of social connections and cohesion. On the basis of ideas about shame psychodynamics and the social construction of the shame-poverty nexus, the author attempts to describe the future prospects in the development of social policy directed toward poverty. Alongside material indicators of poverty, psychosocial indicators also play an important and continued role. This is due to the fact that the values of a market society generate the conviction that poor people themselves are responsible and guilty for their social position. This, in turn, can lead to chronic levels of shame. The consequences of this shame can be witnessed in the different types of social exclusion. Thus the emotional regime of poverty is everyday shame in various forms, which is supported in public discourses including the that of social policy. The author demonstrates that it is necessary to resist these discourses in order to diminish the negative consequences of shame and to influence the development of social policy and anti-poverty programs.