Humanitarian thought has not yet encountered such challenges as in our day. If biotechnology outlined the perspectives of “posthuman” personology, separating it from the anthropomorphic nature of a sane person, then digitalization and robotization of almost all spheres of social practice bring to the fore the idea of homodice - justifying the need for human existence. The article presents four blocks of challenges to humanitarian knowledge: (1) advances in medicine, prosthetics, transplantology and genetic engineering, which outlined the separation of a sane subject from traditional anthropomorphism (“posthuman” personology); (2) studies of the neuro-physiology of the brain, which advanced new arguments against free will; (3) costs of ill-considered propaganda of human rights; (4) digitization of virtually all socio-cultural practices - from economics and military affairs to the formation and functioning of power. It is digitalization that permeates all these “fields of problematization”, setting their common conceptual and technological platform. In this regard, the question arises of the humanitarian examination of modern technologies and the projects of education, communication and management implemented with their help. We are talking about the examination of not only the consequences or also the progress, or even the possibility of implementing such projects, but also their very need. An important task is the focus of such expertise, its criteria. Obviously, it cannot be directed only at the preservation of the biological species of homo sapiens and the conditions of its survival. Paradoxical choice arises in a situation where freedom and free will are questioned: which is more important - Homo or sapiens? It is time for a clear distinction between the concepts of humanism and humanitarian, including in the last and posthuman personology. If humanitarianism is the personology of the free spirit, then humanism seems to be a place next to economism and nationalism — as forms of limited humanitarianism. This wide range of problems requires understanding not only their content, also the methodology of the humanities, their perspectives for positioning in modern society.