Ментальные карты в гуманитарной географии: от ориентации на местности к картографированию пространственных мифов
The author attempts to reveal the most efficient methods of mental mapping for cultural geography
and geohumanities. The retrospective overview refers to the two opposing understandings of the “mental
maps” term. The first mental maps type includes orientation schemes, which exist in minds and can be
visualized as special diagrams. The second type unites various kinds of geoimages with conventional or
traditional cartographic proportions, from sketch maps made by informants based on the researcher’s
task, to thematic geographical maps presenting certain kinds of space perceptions. The author argues that
the combinations of those two approaches with the major space images (revealed using research methods)
localized in certain places on the conventional geographical map are the most prospective.
The online edition contains mental maps of all major Russian macroregions & some regions & cities of Russia, representing ethnic, cultural & geographical specificity of the territories. Unique regional images & their localization are combined in vivid textual & visual materials, mental maps & regional onomasticons.
For the experts specialized in cultural geography & geihumanities, regional & local studies, cartography, and for a wider audience of those interested in geographical diversity of Russia.
Two special kinds of mental maps emerging from the Russian geohumanities are described in the article. Russian geohumanities are regarded as a specific Russian Post-Soviet tradition of cultural geography that is focused on space perceptions & interpretations. The semiotic model of ‘place as palimpsest’ typical for Russian mythogeography is used to describe the multilayered structure of a place, formed by different cultures’ visions of one & the same place. Two opposing meanings of mental maps are stated, namely, 1) mental spatial information, representing the image of the city & the orientations schemes, & 2) cartographical geovisualization, which reflects individual or group perception of space. Mental maps, combining the traits of both big classes with the example of K. Lynch’s generalized urban maps based on the results of individual cities’ perceptions gained by various research methods, are argued to be the most prospective. Urban ‘mythogeographical’ mental maps from the Russian geohumanities are regarded as another kind of that compromise, being transformed from the diagram-like ‘image-geographical’ maps by localizing place myths into ‘sign places’ of a city.
The aim of the paper is to discuss different approaches to the toponyms and their usefulness for the study of the historical culture in the urban space. In this discussion author adresses Soviet toponimical heritage and particularly to the case of "Sovietskaya street" which is rather common for (Post) Soviet cities.
It is highlighted in the paper that intercultural communication is the transmission of “verbal messages across a cultural linguistic border” (Jakobson) .To cover the entire field of intercultural relationship and sufficient conditions for translation one should specify the variables that constitute the invariant for translation and necessary condition to satisfy the classification of a certain message as a translation in relation to another message. Close analyses of some lexical units of secondary nomination on sociolinguistic and cultural axes make us believe that they are real examples (prototypes) of integral elements of intercultural discourse and they represent some mental maps or frames of norms and values of this or that culture. As different languages classify the world and the human experience differently it is pointed out that the dividing lines do not exist in reality but only in the language. The last is linked to reality through conceptual representation. It reflects the problem and relativity of transformation of realities into conceptual classification. The mental object is precise. But the difficulties begin when we have to apply our mental objects to realities that do not correspond exactly to our mental schema. To compile lexical entries of culturally specified units it is necessary to show how languages encode a particular experience of the world or how extra linguistic reality is interpreted. Language and culture may produce differences in cognitive processes which affect conceptualization. The existence of some ambiguity and misunderstanding makes interlocutors look up into dictionaries or reference books to see and comprehend the difference between source and target cultural items. The forthcoming analysis is based on some theoretical principles that provide a frame of reference for it. Among them cognitive approach should be mentioned first of all.
The article constitutes a part of author’s studies on regions and mental geography of the Russian empire. The military actions within own territory normally produce a dramatic and long impact on the spatial imaginations. The Crimean war with its center in newly incorporated New Russia has helped to include this region to the mental maps as the Russian space. The article shows the new symbolic geography formation. It also analyses the efforts of propaganda aimed at maintaining the imperial durability. A special attention is paid to the state militia. The citizen soldiers – nobles and law classes representatives – had the unique opportunity to visit a number of regions. For the inhabitants of Central Russia the border with Little Russia was essential. The perception of Jews has demonstrated xenophobia long before pogroms. Although the authorities had enough reasons to be afraid of separatism, the final conclusion was that the imperial construction is rather healthy. As a result of such a conclusion an elaboration of this construction hasn’t become a part of common program of reforms in Russia. The author used unpublished documents, in particular those preserved in Kiev. The publication in well-known American journal with world-wide distribution has made the article accessible for many readers.
The article constitutes a part of author’s studies on regions and mental geography of the Russian empire. The military actions within own territory normally produce a dramatic and long impact on the spatial imaginations. The Crimean war with its center in newly incorporated New Russia has helped to include this region to the mental maps as the Russian space. The article shows the new symbolic geography formation. It also analyses the efforts of propaganda aimed at maintaining the imperial durability. A special attention is paid to the state militia. The citizen soldiers – nobles and law classes representatives – had the unique opportunity to visit a number of regions. For the inhabitants of Central Russia the border with Little Russia was essential. The perception of Jews has demonstrated xenophobia long before pogroms. Although the authorities had enough reasons to be afraid of separatism, the final conclusion was that the imperial construction is rather healthy. As a result of such a conclusion an elaboration of this construction hasn’t become a part of common program of reforms in Russia. The author used unpublished documents, in particular those preserved in Kiev. The article is a part of the most significant recent international project on the Crimean war. The English translation of the article is published in USA.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The paper reveals main problems of mortality statistics, including recorded causes of death. Miscoding of homicides, self-harm, tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease distorts the actual mortality statistics as to causes of death. There are a number of problems with completion of death certificates, measuring infant mortality, and estimating life expectancy. The paper provides recommendations for improving the system of forensic examination and enhancing coordination between statistical bodies, health bodies, and police. Other important conditions for improving the quality of mortality statistics are increased demographic literacy and a growing standard of living of the population.