Рецензия на коллективную монографию “Transport Systems of Russian Cities: Ongoing Transformations”
Book Review “Transport Systems of Russian Cities: Ongoing Transformations”.
Despite over 30 years of worldwide reforms in many directions to increase efficiency, public transport markets present a variety of arrangements regarding operations, control and ownership that are amenable to improvement. This workshop will examine the contextual economic, political, cultural and social factors behind these many different cases that can be observed around the world. Through a better understanding of such factors it will examine the competition and ownership options for regulated public transport markets, taking full account of local contextual factors. This will include examination of methods for improving performance without major competition and ownership changes, for example by improved institutional design (both top-down and bottom-up), the development of trusting partnerships, the promotion of negotiated contracts and the introduction of optimal operating rules.
After the total governmental control of the urban transport systems during the Soviet epoch came the 20 year long period of almost complete deregulation. Currently there is a trend towards the return to the practice of formal urban transport management, which represents a strange mixture of the remnants of the Soviet methods and the selective adoption of western urban planning practices. The chapter highlights the institutional aspects of transportation systems design and functioning. Using the neo-institutional approach, authors analyze urban transportation system management institutions as well as transportation policy of Russian authorities. The presented analysis consists of two levels: macro-level reveals trends at institution design, explains path dependency from the Soviet epoch. The micro-level put the light on the issue of decision design and the influence of certain actors. The clarification of the formal and informal urban transport management requires the overview of the following questions: the interests and the principles of authorities and private operators interaction, practices of transport demand management implementation and public reaction, the evolution of public perception of private and public property. The chapter is organized as follows. The first, introductory part of the chapter is dedicated to explaining the approach and methodological framework used. The second part reveals peculiarities of Soviet transportation system heritage. The third part examines the challenges of 90s period — introduction of free market mechanisms and era of deregulation. Fourth part discusses the experience of the first decade of XXI century and relevant changes in transport system. In the final part authors analyze main institutions; both formal and informal which shape the modern transport system.
The proposed monograph considers optimization models for managing limited resources in logistics systems. Such systems are primarily applied by industrial, transport and trade companies, including wholesalers.
As a rule, the efficiency of these companies depends in most cases on how rational the limited resources are used. Among the resources are the following: production assets, labor force, manufacturing equipment, vehicles, etc. The work studies various approaches to manage such resources when the situation is quite stable or even well-known (the characteristics of the situation can be clearly described) and, on the contrary, when some parameters of model are not specified exactly. In the first case, deterministic models are in focus of research, in the second one, stochastic models are offered. Nevertheless, the authors of the work evaluate the stability of functionality and solution structure in the models if various risk events occur.
The monograph is intended to senior bachelor’s degree students, master's degree students and postgraduates specialized in "Management" and "Logistics" as well as to the specialists interested in logistics systems design.
This paper examines the actual problem of urban infrastructure of the city and the reaction of young people to changes in the public transport system in Nizhny Novgorod. During the survey 331 respondents (16-30 years old) were questioned about which types of public transport they use; about the attitude towards changes in the transport system and the system as a whole
The article focuses on analysis of processes of transformation of way of life and of ritual practices people in territorially detached village during succession of generations (a case study of the Yazula village of Ulagan region of the Altai Republic). The research is based on comparison of expeditionary materials of 2003 and 2019 years. Changes of this period resulted to significant growth of “openness” of the village to “outside” world and to accessibility of public informational field for the locals. The author reveals how the “discovering” of the detached local community increases its cultural diversity in everyday life that creates the situation of necessity of self-determination for locals and their families on behavioral level.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.