This exploratory research questions communicative patterns of Moscow metropolitan area residents: practices, attitudes to the city and technological tools used for information search and communication matters. Applying communicative ecology concept on the city level, author analyses data collected by an online survey (N = 200) to distinguish key communication patterns within three dimensions: social, technological and discursive. Among the major communication patterns, we identified significance of the strong ties among residents, relatively low level of membership in social and civic society organizations and exceptionally low level of involvement in local community problem-solving. The study delineates several problems of communicative ecology and prospective directions on urban communication research in Moscow.
This article deals with the process of suburbanization in Russia. Its special attention is paid to two major Russian cities: Moscow and St. Petersburg. The article compares the processes occurring in the above cities with the similar ones in the American cities. This comparison provides a means of appropriate ways for improving the quality of life in Russian megalopolises. This article suggests that Soviet heritage could not afford Russian regions to copy American experience to the full extent. However, American “edge cities” are considered to be the best form of suburbanization in terms of increasing the quality of life.
The aim of this paper is to delineate the history of sound studies as a research field and to highlight their connection with urban studies and practices. Throughout their history sound studies have gone through the precritical and critical phases, and finally formed a postdisciplinary field. From the very beginning sound studies established themselves in the heart of urban problems, which enables us to consider them as an alternative (nonvisual) branch of urban studies. Today sound studies can provide urban studies with instruments that can help to overcome the limitations of visual culture. Thus sound studies form a resource ignoring which is likely to bring urban theorists and practitioners to misguided decisions.
Broadway is the most famous street of New York City. It follows the island of Manhattan along its whole length and through many of its vernacular regions. Field research of functional, social-economic, architectural and mental differentiation of the street from Bowling Green to 142 Street in Spanish Harlem shaped the methods of linear zoning and revealed 16 unique regions in the researched segment. These regions turned out to be functional, but their borders and composition are based on the vernacular regions of Manhattan. It appears that Broadway, as a major trade and social thruway, forms the surrounding urban landscape. But the role of vernacular regions, through which street passes, remains important and sometimes even crucial.
The article analyses the effects of new transport infrastructure on transport systems of the 2018 FIFA World Cup host cities. The choice of cities is based on the scale of planned transport infrastructure – Saransk, Kaliningrad and Ekaterinburg experienced substantial interventions. Analysis is conducted using open spatial data on population and street networks. All interventions in transport infrastructure were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and usefulness for the cities after the 2018 FIFA World Cup – scale of improvements in street network connectivity and accessibility of key places in the cities. We identified that investments into new transport infrastructure of Saransk seems to be the most effective in terms of future use. We demonstrated the feasibility of conducting such analysis using only open data, but also identified some issues and pitfalls.
In 1960s advocate planners, as the main ideologist of this movement Paul Davidoff has put it, gave professional support to minority citizens — moderate- and low-income families and inhabitants of ethnic neighborhoods. Next decades the establishment of advocacy planning positions was made within city government agencies. It was called “equity planning”. Today advocacy planning has two dimensions. It’s an approach that can be used in any planning activity — within cabinets of power or in the work with communities. On the other side it’s an ideology that advocates for more just and equal basis of city life and supports poor and disenfranchised.
This article systematizes the experience of the summer field practice completed by students of the Department of socio-economic geography of foreign countries of the Geography Faculty of the Moscow State University. Urban studies are the focus of this article, in particular the study of Manhattan neighbourhoods, which have been researched by students annually since 2013. The article is divided into two parts: methodological and empirical. In the former some methods of urban data collecting and analysis are being revealed, while in the latter authors describe some of the results of Manhattan neighbourhood observations collected over the past four years.
Independent mobility is considered to be an important factor in the development of children. Based on a survey of schoolchildren (N = 568), this article examines the formation of permissive and prohibitive settings for independent mobility depending on the formats of parental accompaniment and the self-visit of places by children. We reveal the link between those who accompany schoolchildren of different age groups (8–12, 13–17) in the most remote places from home and the most visited places, and the distance to these places. If schoolchildren visit places close to home alone, the distance from home to the most remote places is more pronounced for them than for schoolchildren who move independently away from home. However, if children are alone in the most remote places, frequently visited places are far away from home. The revealed relationship is described by the mechanisms of the near and distant radius of parental control. A joint visit with the parents (“near radius”) of remote locations contributes to the increase of the parent’s confidence in the independent mobility of the child, and as a consequence, of the distances of the places visited from the house. While an independent visit (“distant radius”) of nearby places also increases the distance of the most remote places, it is not on the basis of parental care, but on the successful experience of the children’s mobility.
This article describes establishment and development of the history of urban mental maps. Two opposing meanings of mental maps are stated as a result of comparative historic study, namely, 1) mental spatial information, representing the image of the city and the orientations schemes, and 2) cartographical geovisualization, which reflects individual or group perception of space. Intellect-maps being not close to spatial data and “image-geographical” maps, elaborated within Russian geohumanities are additionally described in the first case. The divide between sketch maps drawn by people according to the researcher’s task and the maps of space perceptions, which are close to the traditional thematic geographical maps, is stated in the second case. The mental maps, combining the traits of both big classes are argued to be the most prospective. Kevin Lynch’s generalized urban maps based on the results of individual cities’ perceptions gained by various research methods, and “image-topographic” and “mythogeographical” maps from the Russian geohumanities are named among those prospective ones.
The article reviews the development of paratransit-type public transport and transport policy of local authorities. In the introduction the paper briefly describes the history of paratransit, it’s positive and negative features and makes an overview of Russian and foreign studies. In the main part the case studies of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) and Makhachkala (Russia) are performed. The paper analyses the development of paratransit route networks and the transport policy of public authorities of this cities. The gap between principal role of paratransit and the inertia of transport policy is revealed. In the final part the article provides recommendations to improve transport policy and transport regulatory system.
This article deals with the modern linguistic landscape of St. Petersburg, with a focus on the ways it represents the languages of migrants from Central Asia and China. Linguistic-landscape studies are traditionally believed to reflect the actual linguistic situation in a given region. Nevertheless, actual multilingualism of Russian cities, — resulting, for example, from migration to megalopolises — is not always reflected in the linguistic landscape, since both official language policy and a majority’s attitudes and linguistic ideologies can prevent such a reflection. This article is based on data gathered in 2016 during fieldwork in different parts of St. Petersburg (Devyatkino, Parnas, and Apraksin Dvor), and it analyzes directions of communication and main domains in which migrant languages can be used in written form and the level to which these languages can be found in observable and open urban spaces. As a result, this study of public signs, advertisements, signboards, and other written communication in the city’s public spaces not only provides us with information on languages other than Russian, but it evaluates the roles these languages have to play in the context of a domineering linguistic ideology of monolingualism that officially and popularly does not support language diversity
Urban environment quality and quality of living patterns are the key factors for Russian cities’ competitiveness increase. They both are to a large extent driven by the housing economy characteristics. The article provides analysis of basic trends in housing economy of Russian cities including:
• housing consumption;
• structure of housing and ownership rights;
• housing price dynamics and the level of housing affordability;
• condition of housing stock and utility infrastructure, investment in renovation of the housing stock;
• state of competition at hosing market and supply elasticity to demand for differentiated and good quality urban environment ;
• state regulation of the housing economy – support for demand and supply, taxation policies.
This article presents the results of a study of the child-rearing practices of Russian-speaking migrant women living in Madrid, which include the organization of the daily life of children, the choice of educational and structured programs and institutions. The aim of the research is to study the influence of the features of the neighborhoods and migration specificity of families on the child-rearing practices. The empirical base of the research includes interviews with Russian-speaking parents and teachers or organizers of Russian structured programs for children, as well as the data from observations conducted during visits to these programs, meetings and walks with parents and their children. The results of the research demonstrate that the institutional resources of the neighborhoods can limit and determine the diversity and the choice of structured activities in which children are involved. Parents follow a number of strategies to get over the limited availability of resources and unfavorable living conditions. Migratory specificity of families, showed in the level of proficiency in the Spanish language, shared ideas about the importance of the transfer of the mother tongue to the child, orientation on the Russian-speaking community, can mediate the influence of the neighborhoods on thechild-rearing practices.
Book Review “Transport Systems of Russian Cities: Ongoing Transformations”.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
The city center is at the core of urban and housing economics. Many models crucially depend on it. In a market economy, the location of urban amenities, especially eating establishments, closely correlates with that of the city center and, more generally, with the Central Business District (CBD). In a centrally planned economy, the spatial distribution of those amenities is determined by the central planner and can differ significantly from a market-based distribution. Using the case of St. Petersburg (Russia), we investigate changes in the spatial distribution of eating establishments resulting from the transition from a market economy to a centrally planned one and then again to a market economy. In addition, we explore the shifts of the city center between 1895 and 2017 using eating establishments as a proxy. The spatial distribution is analyzed using a 2-D kernel density estimation. We find evidence for a substantial reduction and dispersion of eating establishments during the Soviet period. We also establish that after the October 1917 Revolution the city center of St. Petersburg moved several kilometers to the north-east.