Поверх барьеров: исследуем резильентные школы
A field study was performed by experts from the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations conducted by HSE in cooperation with the Levada Center. Interviews and focus groups were organized with school principals, teachers, students and their parents in three schools teaching the most challenging type of students from low socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, who nevertheless achieve high learning outcomes. This is a follow-up of the 2015 study of environment characteristics, management and education strategies of schools operating in unfavorable social contexts. Such schools are defined as resilient, meaning that they successfully resist the disadvantaged context beyond their control. The schools surveyed differ in the number of students, education programs, and the level of regional deprivation, yet all of them pursue similar strategies that are well-targeted and recognized by all educational process participants. Such strategies include: introducing limited selection and levelling off the student body, imposing high expectations and transparent requirements to learning outcomes, providing individual support and encouragement to students, and developing the skills boosting graduates’ chances of successful socialization. Consistent implementation of these strategies will create conditions to promote academic resilience among students. Studying the experience of such schools appears to be crucial for solving the problem of inequality in education.
The article is based on the study "Change the desired image of the family in the eyes different generations in the post-Soviet space (on example of Russia and Belarus)", held in 2014 with the support of the Russian Foundation for Humanities (grant No. 14-23-01551). The ideas different generations about the nature of education and educational strategies
This paper summarizes the insights obtained in the course of the proactive educational project "Inclusive Higher School." The goals of the project are to examine the present-day process of inclusive education at the National Research University "Higher School of Economics", as well as to develop a set of recommendations for promoting an enabling learning environment for students with disabilities. This paper briefly describes the main steps of the project, sums up the results of the studies, and analyzes the current degree of disability inclusion at the Higher School of Economics.
On the basis of PISA-2009 materials: Reading literacy The efficiency of one year of study was explored on the basis of PISA-2009 (reading) materials in seven countries: Russia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, Canada and Brazil. An instrumental variable was used, which enabled to assess the effect of one year of study by the nonstrict method of regression discontinuity. The analysis included both general educational programs and vocational educational programs together and comprehensive schools separately. It is found that in Russia the efficiency of one year of study is insignificant to all programs’ students. In the countries where early division into general educational and vocational programs is practised, the efficiency of studying is lower than in the countries where all pupils of 15 years old learn a general educational program. For general educational programs’ students the efficiency of studying is significant in all countries. Compared to the general educational trajectory, low efficiency is typical of vocational programs’ students. The way a family’s socio-economic status and efficiency of school education are interrelated and how much they are interrelated depends a lot on an educational system and vary widely by country. In Russia, as well as in some other countries, efficiency of studying does not depend on pupils’ socio-economic indices. The importance of the results obtained for assessment of efficiency of studying is discussed, and particularly for fair assessment of national achievements in countries with different sets of educational trajectories.
This chapter studies how horizontal gender differences and vertical inequalities at labor market entry have been changing in Russia from Soviet to post-Soviet times. On theoretical grounds, we expect the major institutional and cultural shifts to have not been gender-neutral. We relate our discussion particularly to features of educational and employment systems, family policies, and gender-specific cultural aspects. Using retrospective data from the Russian Education and Employment Survey (EES), we analyze sex segregation across industry sectors and the gender gap in job authority for labor market entrants in the Soviet period (1965–91) and the post-Soviet period (1991–2005). Our findings reveal that horizontal gender differences and conditional vertical inequalities at labor market entry were already widespread during the Soviet period despite the proclaimed principles of equality. Withal, these gender differences and inequalities even grew after liberalization reforms, and, in recent decades, they have even counteracted women’s gains in education. We argue that the rapid changes in economic and social life have been accompanied by the emergence of new forms of gender-oriented culture. These changes, in turn, have disposed male and female entrants to enter occupational fields in a more separated way than before and they have shaped employers’ and (female) employees’ preferences and decisions. This has affected the likelihood of females entering jobs with a higher status.
This article analyzes the main approaches to study educational and occupational outcomes and trajectories. Young people have to decide when and what to study, later on, where to work. Their life levels will depend on those decisions, but the different ways that in both areas they are able to take and their outcomes in education and in the labor market depend on various factors. Among explications it is possible to identify six large approaches: human capital from economics, cultural and social capital from sociology, the socioeconomic status or familiar background approach and the educational and psychological approaches. These approaches are not contrary necessarily, they can be complementary, and their explanatory power depends on place and time, however, the literature does not have an effort to present together their contributions, methodologies and empirical results. This work seeks to remedy that situation and to point out some methodological and empirical weakness.
Today is still little known about regional inequality in education in Russia. In this article, we, on the one hand, analyze regional differences in educational resources in their association with regions’ socio-economic characteristics. On the other hand, we estimate relationship of regions’ socio-economic characteristics and educational resources with the proportion of students remaining in high school as well as with the average results of the Unified State Exam (end of high school test) in two compulsory subjects - Russian and math. We test theories of effectively maintained inequality and maximally maintained inequality with the use of data of Russia regions that we retrieve in open sources – publications of Rosstat, federal and regional education agencies. To estimate the relationship we use correlation and regression analysis. Our results show that more urbanized regions with higher level of human capital and GRP are usually characterized by the higher level of school expenditures, more experienced teachers, and higher chances for students to study at the advanced level. The same time, the level of urbanization and human capital is positively related to the proportion of students that choose academic trajectory after finishing secondary school. Finally, the results of the Unified State Exam are also positively associated with access to educational resources. In both subjects, the average test score is higher in the regions with higher proportion of students in lyceums/gymnasiums and in schools with advanced study of the subjects. In Russian, the exam results are also related to the proportion of students remaining in high school. In general, regional inequality in access to educational resources overlaps with socio-economic differences which produces a situation of double loss or double advantage. Bigger access to better educational resources in regions with higher human capital supports effectively maintained inequality theory. The same time the fact that less proportion of students choose academic trajectory after grade 9 in regions with less human capital could be an evidence of maximally maintained inequality. The article could be interesting to readers whose study relates to problems of education inequality and education policy.
Innovation is one of the most important concepts that appear in the literature devoted to management and economics in recent years. This is connected with changes that occur as a result of implementing innovation in a knowledge-based economy. Innovation is such an important matter that support for it is considered both at the level of central and regional institutions (macro- and meso-level) and at enterprise level (microeconomic level). This publication focuses on discussing innovation at enterprise level, and because of the great importance of information and communication technology in the modern economy, most of the chapters are devoted to marketing innovation on the Internet. This monograph is intended for all those who are interested in the teaching aspect of innovation management, especially for students and faculty members involved in programmes and specializations devoted to innovation; managers who are interested in the behaviour of Internet users and other consumers; as well as people who want to broaden their knowledge with regard to economic innovation. The first chapter, devoted to entrepreneurship, contains a synthetic presentation of approaches to defining entrepreneurship in economic theory and delineates the relationships that exist between entrepreneurship and innovation, both in the context of the risk taken by an entrepreneur and in the context of the entrepreneurial process, which is inextricably connected with all instances of innovation. The second chapter discusses the significance of the triple helix model in local innovation systems. It shows the importance of bilateral and trilateral relationships in the university-business-government system; which in the case of open innovation are essential to reduce the risks involved in implementing innovations. The third chapter is devoted to consumer behaviour, which is an important factor that must be considered when initiating and developing the innovation process. The author presents scientific findings relating to consumer behaviour, defines the basic processes involved in this behaviour, as well as discussing trends in consumer behaviour, illustrated with numerous examples. The fourth chapter discusses the principles of innovative product management. The author defines the general concept and the types of products, innovation and innovation processes, as well as delineating the most important features of the innovation process. Particular attention is given to methods of dealing with the most difficult stage of the innovation process, referred to as the “valley of death”. In the fifth chapter, which concerns innovative brands, the author focuses on the significance of customer’s experiences in the process of building a relationship with a brand. The chapter concludes with an example of using sensory marketing in the business model implemented at Starbucks. The sixth chapter, devoted to marketing control, presents the metrics for measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities. It describes the basic principles of marketing control, discusses the assessment of marketing at the strategic level, as well as presenting a set of indicators which are useful for the evaluation of sales and distribution management and for the assessment of marketing communications, with particular emphasis on measuring the performance of online marketing. The next three chapters relate directly to marketing innovation on the Internet. In chapter seven, devoted to e-commerce, after defining the basic concepts, the author discusses the business models that dominate in online activities as well as indicating the basic forms of organization in electronic commerce. Chapter eight deals with building a marketing strategy on social media, including multi-channel communication. The author describes the process of building a community around a brand, indicates actions designed to generate consumer engagement, and discusses ways of collecting data about the recipients on social media. In chapter nine, the issue of creating value for customers in e-commerce is discussed. The author shows how this value changes in different phases of the life cycle of relationships with customers in online retailing, describes the activities characteristic to each stage of the cycle, and presents techniques which are useful in building relationships with customers. The tenth and final chapter may be useful for people who conduct classes in English. It is devoted to the use of metaphors as a teaching tool and a means for conceptualization. The chapter discusses the significance of metaphors in teaching English and gives examples of some useful metaphors connected with football which can help in conducting classes for a group of English-speaking students, as well as presenting metaphor models in academic English. This monograph is a result of the project “Innovation Management – an English-language Master’s programme supported by modern information technologies,” number FSS/2014/HEI/W/0095, funded by the Foundation for the Development of the Education System and implemented under the Measure Development of Polish Higher Education Institutions, as well as research conducted in the Faculty of Management at the Poznań University of Economics, primarily by the staff of the Department of Trade and Marketing
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.