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  • Аффордансы и категории: одинаков ли эффект совместимости по отношению к объектам с разным категориальным статусом?

Article

Аффордансы и категории: одинаков ли эффект совместимости по отношению к объектам с разным категориальным статусом?

Котов А. А., Носов А. В.

Studies with an ecological approach have shown that during the perception of an object, motor programs relevant to that object become activated and reflect possible actions the object allows for, or affordances. Furthermore, there appears to be a compatibility effect in some experimental tasks. When objects are sorted by a feature that is irrelevant for the motor action related to the object, responses made by the hand possibly involved in the action with the object were faster than responses made by other hand. It is unclear whether the object’s category membership (typical or border member of the category) has an impact on the compatibility effect. In this study, a stimulus–response compatibility (SRC) task was preceded by a category learning task. In the experimental condition, pictures of pans were shown to the participants, who had to assign the pictures to one of two artificial categories. The objects differed in side height (a feature relevant for categorization but irrelevant for motor actions with the object) and by handle orientation (a feature irrelevant for categorization but relevant for motor actions with the object). In the control condition, no category learning task was performed. In both conditions, participants performed the SRC task (immediately after the category learning task in the experimental condition): they divided the pictures of pans by handle color, using the right or the left hand when responding. The handle’s orientation (to the left or to the right) could match to the hand required for the answer (matching trials), or not match to it (mismatching trials). The side height also varied: it could correspond to typical members of the artificial category (easily learnable) or to the category’s border members (not easily learnable). No categorical membership impact on the compatibility effect was found. These results are discussed considering the role of learning processes in motor activation and the affordances of object.