Специфика проблемы субъекта в рецептивной эстетике и литературной антропологии В. Изера
The paper attempts to investigate literary anthropology of W. Iser, created by him on the basis of receptive aesthetics. It is included briefly a perspective of the historical and theoretical formation of Iser’s theory, as well as an actual point of view, related to the «anthropological turn» of humanities. It is emphasized the problem of subjective experience, the key features of which can be revealed through the study of the process of reading fiction. Iser defines his approach to the study of literature as functional, considering fiction as a medium in communication between text, reality and the reader.The focus of attention is on the transformations of subjectivity, involved through imagination in reading. Human presence, linked with a transcendental position, becomes apparent in the process of reading; however, it turns out to be connected with the essential uncertainty, constant variability of subjective attitudes. Literature is explored as a medium of such an anthropological feature as human’s own inaccessibility for her|himself.
The volume contains the articles intitially held as talk at the conference "Is this real? Phenomenologies of the imaginary" at the Central-European Institute of Philosophy" (19-22.11.2013) as result of the research projects “Philosophical Investigations of the Body Experiences: Transdisciplinary Perspectives” (GAP 401/0/1164) and “Relevance of Subjectivity” (M300091201) in the Department of the Contemporary Continental Philosophy of the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences, Prague.
Ideas of the creation of the new human being (новый человек) in Russian history and culture from the 10th century until the homo sovieticus.
I discuss the ontological nature and heuristic value of psychedelic experience. I argue that psychedelic phenomena may manifest the activity of certain mental formations and brain mechanisms that otherwise remain hidden. Thus, psychedelic phenomena can be heuristic tools and intriguing objects of the scientific study. I consider two types of psychedelic phenomena in particular. The first is the moral cleansing that may accompany a psychedelic trip. The second is the appearance of visual and auditory hallucinations. I establish a unified explanatory ground for the phenomena that are commonly viewed as distinct in their genesis. I explain both types of phenomena as products of the amplified imaginative ability of the brain under a substance’s influence. I suggest that the activation of imagination causes an increased empathy and thus accentuates moral feelings. I propose the hypothesis that hallucinations are mental objects of a quantum nature. I argue that no ontologically separate reality stands behind psychedelic visions.
The article is about a South African woman writer Ollivia Shreiner (1855-1920). She is considered the founder of South Africa's Anglophone belles-lettres. Since the 1880-s her creation has become known far outside her homeland and, in particular, has won a vast readership in Russia. M. Gorky admired her books. A. Davidson not only recounts the writer's remarkable biography and describes the main directions of her creation, but he also researches the reasons for the interest in her exactly in Russia, which still continues.
The paper describes the use of words 'person', 'human', 'human being', 'individual', 'man' и 'personality' that denote a human being in modern English. With the help of corpus methods of collecting and analyzing language data we could not only determine discourse features of these lexemes, but also define their frequency in different thematic types of texts.
Imagination as a problem of evolutionary epistemology is in the focus of attention of the authors of the book. Achievements of the modern cognitive science, life sciences, and neuroscience are involved in the analysis of this traditional epistemological problem, i.e. the problem is under discussion here in the interdisciplinary prospects. The ability of productive imagination is considered in the connection with the newest studies in creativity, the human creative capabilities. The consideration of imagination is placed in the context of the modern discussions of mental imagery, of perceptive thinking, of the role of visualization in mind's games, in the mental processes which take place in different states of consciousness. Imagination is studied in connection with the problems of individual, bodily and spiritual, cultural and social components of the cognitive processes.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.