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Article

Факторы национализации партийной системы современной России

The article attempts to identify the major factors of party system nationalization in contemporary Russia. The concept of nationalization is treated either as the nationwide participation in elections and territorial voting homogenization, what allows to study the formation of national parties participating the process of political competition within nationwide standardized patterns of electoral behavior. The study is focused on national (2016) and subnational (2012-2016) parliamentary elections (proportional representation). Author introduces the national-subnational covering index to achieve the aim. This index takes into account election participation strategies of political parties at different territorial levels. The measuring shows a significant variation in electoral participation of the parties across the territory, what can be explained by the level of the institutionalization (parliamentary / non-parliamentary) as well as their durability. Also, statistical analysis has been carried out with data concerning voting homogeneity of the State Duma, 2016 elections (according to Party Nationalization Score by Jones-Mainwaring) used as sample. Principal component analysis has revealed that the voting nationalization structure is quite compact and similar to the structure of electoral competition where "United Russia" occupies a separate position from all other parties in the electoral space (so-called "structural domination"). On the other hand, it is also important to take into account the cleavage between the federal parliamentary parties and the non-systemic opposition plus the most successive spoilers. At last regression analysis reveals the importance of regional political factors like the governors’ ability to consolidate regional elites delivering votes in high levels of territorial homogenization. At the same time the radical opposition remains marginalized being forced to deny participating in regional electoral campaigns.