Negative priming: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies
A phenomenon termed negative priming is defined as an increase in reaction time and/or decrease in performance during instances in which current target stimuli are employed as distractor stimuli in the previous trial. A recent qualitative review on negative priming reported neural regions of interest underlined by activity within the right middle frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus; however, these areas of interest have not been tested and supported by using coordinate-based, quantitative meta-analysis. We compiled functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that examined neural correlates of priming tasks using perceptual, conceptual and lexical primes. Effect-size signed differential mapping was used to perform a neuroimaging meta-analysis on the negative priming effect. Results from fourteen studies (245 participants; 85 foci) show concordance across studies in the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior temporal gyrus, as suggested by the previous review; however, results also yielded concordance within the anterior cingulate cortex. Our data support the extant hypothesis and offer new insights into the neural mechanisms of the negative priming effect.