Контрацептивная революция в России
Fertility transition in Russia had been completed up to the 1960s, but since then pregnancy termination remained playing a large role in birth control. Official statistics show the positive dynamics of main characteristics of reproductive health in the post-Soviet period. This development is often questioned. Based on the analysis of data from Rosstat, Russian Ministry of Health, and materials from sample surveys, mostly from 21 waves of "Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Economics "(RLMS-HSE) we conclude that the official statistics of abortion are adequate. The article refutes the assumption of significant underreporting of abortions in Russia. Over the past few decades Russia has experienced contraceptive revolution, which led to a more humane way of birth control.
Russia’s declining birth rate is linked to a delay in a family’s decision to have children and to uncertainty about the place of children in a couple’s relationship. Despite the rise of individualism and the importance of career and self-realization, however, the family retains a very important place in Russian society.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The authors discuss social and demographic processes in the rural regions of the Russian Near North and, first of all, in the Kostroma region – one of the socially problematic regions in the Russian Federation. In the article, the attention is focused on the analysis of mechanisms and assessment of scales of the depopulation: high mortality, migration of youth and middle aged people to the cities, deformations in age and gender structure with prevalence of the elderly population and a small share of children. The authors state essential distinctions of demographic indicators between municipalities in the Kostroma region and emphasize importance of social and demographic research on a basic municipal level. Indicators of the low life expectancy, high mortality caused by external reasons (alcoholism, murders, suicides, etc.), and high migration of youth are seen as the objective indicators of social problems in the local communities. It demands special attention on the part of the government authorities that plan social programs and take administrative decisions.
Die »Pille« und ihre globalen Auswirkungen. Die »Pille« veränderte die Welt. Im Osten wie im Westen entwickelte sie sich zum zentralen Symbol einer »sexuellen Revolution«, stellte die überkommenen Normengefüge in Frage und die Machtverhältnisse der Geschlechter auf den Kopf - mit weitreichenden Folgen. Ihre Markteinführung Anfang der sechziger Jahre geriet zu einer fundamentalen Herausforderung: nicht nur für die Frauen und Männer auf allen Kontinenten, für ihr Sexualleben und für ihre Familienplanung. Herausgefordert fühlten sich auch die Hüter traditioneller Werte in Politik, Religion und Kultur. Manche Gesellschaften hießen das Pharmazeutikum der Moderne willkommen, andere verweigerten sich strikt.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.