This is a collection of scientific papers on migration studies.
Universities are a powerful attractor of youth, including remain the main resource for preserving and attracting talent to the regions. In this study, we have analyzed two main peaks of youth migration - “school-university” and “university-labor market”. The relevance of the study is due to the development of regional systems of higher education, taking into account the positive forecast of the demographic growth of young people, as well as an increase in the rate of growth of educational migration. In addition, we have carried a qualitative analysis of the motives and factors of educational migration on the example of applicants from several regions of the Russian Federation.
Migration has huge influence on demographic structure formation both in donor and host areas. Internal migration’s effect is the most significant. As long as migration involves mainly young people, their relocation to regional centers accelerates population ageing in peripheral areas and thus depopulation. Ageing is particularly fast in the Russian hinterland. There are areas with the median age of population reaching the edge of 50 years. The cohort research on youth’s migration to the centers on the last two Russian census data shows that up to 70% of school graduates leave the regional periphery for good. At the end of the article a method of estimating the trend in regional center’s migration attractiveness for the youths is proposed.
Migration (especially internal) changes sex-age structures substantially both in donor and host areas. As long as migration involves mainly young people, their relocation to the big cities (mainly regional centers) accelerates population ageing in peripheral areas and thus depopulation. Ageing is particularly fast in the Russian hinterland. Here you can find areas with the median age of population reaching the edge of 50 years. The cohort research on youth’s migration to the centers on the last two Russian census data shows that up to 70% of school graduates leave the regional periphery for good. At the end of the article there is an author’s method which presents the attempt to estimate the trend in regional center’s migration attractiveness for the youths.
As long as migration involves mainly young people, their relocation to the big cities has the strongest impact on sex-age structures both in core and peripheral areas. That’s why we are focusing our biggest part of attention on this particular age group in this paper. Unfortunately, Russian migration statistics is quite unreliable. It has failed to record “student age” movement in the last decades. So we consider the best way to fill this gap is to use the Census data. In this paper we used the so called “method of shifting ages”. The core idea is to compare cohorts in adjacent census years taking mortality into account. The discrepancy would stand for migration. The curtail advantage of this method is that, having appropriate data, we can evaluate migration losses and gains at any administrative level. Our data allows us to study intraregional population dynamics. As mortality is insignificant in youth cohorts, we are mostly dealing with migration. Our estimates show that during the last intercensus period (2002-2010) up to 70 percent of youth cohorts have left regional periphery for good after graduating school. For comparison, previous intercensus period (1989-2002) has shown only 40 percent decrease in periphery’s youth cohorts. At the end of the research author’s method of estimating the trend in regional center’s migration attractiveness for the youths is presented.
Not dissimilar to many other countries, migration in Russia has a pronounced age-dependent pattern with the peak intensity at the age when people obtain a professional education. In this paper, we analyze migration intensity at student age (17–21) using three sources of demographic data with due regard for their key opportunities and limitations. We compare the migration attractiveness of Russian regions in three ways: (1) applying APC analysis to registration data, separately for two periods: 2003–2010 and 2011–2013; the reason for sampling these two periods is because there was a significant change in the migration statistics collection practices in 2011; (2) using the age-shift method to analyze the data of the 2002 and 2010 Russian Censuses; we offer a way to refine the census data by discarding the non-migration-related changes in the age-sex structure; (3) using information about the average ratio of full-time university enrolments to the number of high school graduates in the academic years 2012/13 and 2013/14 across the regions. Based on the four indicators of migration intensity (intercensal estimates, statistical records for the two periods, and the graduate-enrolment ratio), we develop a ranking of the regions of Russia in migration attractiveness for young adults. A position in this ranking depends not only on the level of higher education development in a region but also on the consistent patterns of interregional migration in Russia. The regions in the European part of the country have a much higher chance of attracting student migrants.
This short abstract present the cohort research on youth migration in Russia. The research is based on Census data. Method of shifting ages is used.