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Article

Отечественная социология и медиа: ретроспективный взгляд (1765-2000)

Шариков А. В., Ермолаева О. Я.

The paper is focused on certain aspects of media sociology. The 250-year history of using by mass-media of questioning method in Russia is a fact well-known to journalism historians but not known in sociological community. The article highlights the key milestones in the development of interaction between mass media and sociologists of the Russian Empire, the USSR, and the Russian Federation since 1765 up to 2000. The "Grushin model" term is introduced to describe the activities of the sociological units headquatered at major media editorial boards; the model involves a combination of the media audience research coupled with public opinion polls and researchers' publication activity. This is the model persued by B.A. Grushin, one of the founders of the Institute of Public Opinion at the Komsomolskaya Pravda Editorial Board in 1960-1967, who conducted regular public opinion polls and published their results in the Kovsomolskaya Pravda  newspaper and scientific journals and books. A number of undisclosed facts about the sociological activities of three biggest Russian TV and Radio companies in 1990s, including the first Russian exit poll conducted by the Russian State TV and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK) during the 1993 State Duma elections (first in the Post-Soviet Russia), are presented in the paper.