This article emphasizes the importance of the ability to speak in public. The article reviews the practices in gain knowledge of speaking in public successfully. It deals with major problems that speakers face while making presentations. Particular attention is paid to the necessity of analyzing the audience before delivering a presentation and adapting to it during the performance. It is pointed out that it is essential to keep the attention of the audience and maintain your credibility. Some advice is given to possible ways of how to react to audience’s feedback on your speech and adjust what you say to make it clear, appropriate and convincing. Giving a speech has been listed one of the greatest fears people have. In this concept it is discussed why this nervousness occurs and what can be done about it. One of the major problems inexperienced speakers have to overcome is performance anxiety; advice is given on how to deal with it. Adequate ways of reacting to interferences and disturbances are also discussed.
The article presents a sociological analysis of the radio audience for classical music “Orpheus”. The continuous research for 10 years in Moscow managed to increase the audience of “Orpheus” by 2.6 times. It turned out that the absolute value of the audience “Orpheus” in Moscow is ahead of all radios of classical music, which were compared. Study of the radio audience for classical music requires a very sensitive approach, taking into account many nuances.
In this article we look at The Town’s Day holiday as a performance, as successful or failed performance of a particular message (of the unity of urban community) for a particular audience (urban community). For this we use Jeffrey Alexander’s theory of cultural pragmatics. We conclude that in the case of The Town’s Day, held in Gorokhovets in 2011, message performed during the official part of the celebration, was not performed successfully. Through the message of official scenario was declared the unity of citizens (in the form of congratulatory speeches, nominations, awards and music numbers metaphorically referencing family and home) However, it was delivered to only a segment of the town’s community. Even that small segment of community did not engage with the performance fully. In conclusion we discuss that The Town’s Day was not perceived as an authentic performance, because of the discrepancy between the message of unity and segregation of audience on the level of mise-en-scène. We suggest that such community celebrations cannot function as a ritual that brings segmented community together, although it may function as a ritual that revives existing community solidarity.
The article is devoted to the origin and development of sociological services of the biggest Russian TV companies in the 1990s and early 2000s. The audience measurement, recently referred to as public opinion studies, has always been an important source of information to assess both the performance of the editorial staff and the mood of the audience. Sociological services run by major TV channels in the 1990s carried a lot of weight in the company’s structure. The Author’s study aims at filling the gaps in the history of the development of sociological services. The data have biographical value; most of information obtained during the interviews with the head of the Petersburg Russian State Company for Television and Radio Broadcasting has not been published before. They shed light on various facts of the history of the weighting methods in Russia. In particular, they help to describe in detail the work of the Channel Five sociological service. The author also describes the milestones in the history of media measurement in Russia.
The paper deals with the theory of collective trauma, which is built within the framework of the “strong program” in cultural sociology by Jeffrey Alexander. The theory highlights the importance of the trauma in the shaping of contemporary Western collective identities. The central message of the theory is the avoidance of the “naturalism fallacy”, i.e. of such a vision of the trauma, which doesn’t differ seriously the fact of collective perception from the objective event. Following Alexander, sociologically valid way to explain collective trauma should focus on the symbolic mechanisms of the creating trauma, and is driven by such a notions as code, master narrative, drama, ritual, etc. The power of developed explanation is illustrated by numerous historical cases.
Social Media as part of the digital arena has become an integral part of our everyday life. The process of interaction between the company and the client varies depending on the platform (for example, the social network VKontakte and video hosting Youtube) and the objectives set by the company. Currently, social media is a way to interact and engage in dialogue with a new audience, for example, a small local museum can be opened to any audience around the world.
The paper is focused on certain aspects of media sociology. The 250-year history of using by mass-media of questioning method in Russia is a fact well-known to journalism historians but not known in sociological community. The article highlights the key milestones in the development of interaction between mass media and sociologists of the Russian Empire, the USSR, and the Russian Federation since 1765 up to 2000. The "Grushin model" term is introduced to describe the activities of the sociological units headquatered at major media editorial boards; the model involves a combination of the media audience research coupled with public opinion polls and researchers' publication activity. This is the model persued by B.A. Grushin, one of the founders of the Institute of Public Opinion at the Komsomolskaya Pravda Editorial Board in 1960-1967, who conducted regular public opinion polls and published their results in the Kovsomolskaya Pravda newspaper and scientific journals and books. A number of undisclosed facts about the sociological activities of three biggest Russian TV and Radio companies in 1990s, including the first Russian exit poll conducted by the Russian State TV and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK) during the 1993 State Duma elections (first in the Post-Soviet Russia), are presented in the paper.
The article presents the results of an empirical study conducted in January-February 2018, aimed to reveal how Russian television channels are implementing the requirements of the law “On Protection of Children against Information Detrimental to Their Health and Development”. We conducted a review of more than 45,000 broadcasting elements (TV programs, movies, serials, cartoons, etc.), which were aired in early 2018. It turned out that more than half of them did not have any age rating information; also TV channels often used the “16+” mark, although broadcasting elements with it in the interval from 7 AM to 21 PM is a violation of the law; while broadcasting programs rated as “18+” was without any violations. The obtained results allow us to draw a conclusion that this law needs to be improved and the professional training should be held for its competent use in the broadcasting.
The paper aims at analyzing conceptual approaches in Museum Studies and their development. Definition of the museum, its functions and effects is not stable and unchallenged. Likewise, subject area of Museum studies is diverse in terms of disciplinary perspectives, premises, methods and approaches. Transformation in cultural life, as well as notorious cases and outstanding academic research works have influenced how museums are conceptualized. Literature analysis proves that in the field of Museum Studies the dominant approach regards power relations. It often uses concepts developed in the works of Michel Foucault. Power relations may be viewed in three ways: first, as the “civilizing” or disciplinary museum, second, as the representing museum, and third, as institute that reproduces inequality. However, we argue that in the last two decades, there has been a tendency to focus on agency and microlevel. Consequently, there are research questions that emphasize actor and analysis of her activity, reception and reaction. These two alternative approaches to museum – power relations and macrostructures, on the one hand, and agency and everyday phenomena on the other, - are revealed in tree thematic subfields of research: museum materiality, knowledge construction, and communication. In conclusion, we present recent transformations in social science and museum practice and formulate new questions for future research.
This paper represents a synthesis of few working papers of the author, published in various mostly foreign publications. In the paper the author examines social consequences and social prerequisites for specific role that Russian state and Russian audiences are playing in the media. In our opinion the situation in Russian media cannot to be perceived outside the context of social structure of the Russian society and the role of the state in this society.