Социальные нормы: от попыток определения к новым типам теоретических вопросов и теорий нормативного
While many past theoretical discussions on nature of social norms were centered on problem of their precise definition, I propose an analysis of peculiar character of sociological theorizing about norms which is grounded in a wider interdisciplinary context (particularly, in sociologically relevant implications from H.L.A. Hart’s and H. Kelsen’s works on law and norms) and based on systematization of principal norm-related questions which varying types of theories attempt to answer, i.e., nature of norms, social mechanisms of their support and change, analytic and empirically based distinctions between norms and rules and conventions, irreducible complexity of norms, etc.
In this article the author examines a recent turn in European legal history from the postwar consensus to European legal history in global perspective. He explains the two types of legal histories though the relevant ideological background and reviews the basic concepts. Also he evaluates the consequences of this turn for the inter-disciplinary interaction of legal historians with comparative law, anthropology, socio-legal studies, legal theory. Finally, he reviews the first results of the new approach, including the discovery of legal diversity and hybridity in European legal histories.
This paper characterizes importance and the principal possibilities of application of the theory of normative systems to the problems of legal theory and of logic of norms.
The book consits of the articles on the history, theory and philosophy of comparative law in Ukrainian and Russian.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.