Наркоистерия в "странах тюрем"
The article presents a review of Craig Reinarman’s and Harry G. Levine’s works, who studied one of the episodes of the “War on Drugs” in the United States – panic over the consumption of crack in the second half of the 1980s. US politicians claimed about the threat to “whole generation of American youth” and “every household”, “killing our children”, “problem number one of those with which we are faced.” Crack using was presented as “crisis”, “flooding”, “epidemic”, “plague”. Panic over the crack contributed to the adoption of harsh anti-drug laws and increased funding for law enforcement agencies.
In the same way – using the same rhetoric and the same gestures – the Russian Federal Drug Control Service in Russia played in the drug problem in recent years. Meanwhile, the US experience shows the danger of panic over drug use, inefficient budget spending on the “War on Drugs”, the devastating effects of this war, in particular, the growth of the prison population and the spread of HIV/AIDS.
The book includes the result of social researches in diiferent fields of modern sciense represented on the conference in Canada..
Female drug users (FDU) are a vulnerable group discriminated in modern Russian society. Although criminal record increases their stigmatization and makes it more complex, it can catalyze the drug treatment process in several ways: either one can be sentenced to treatment or decide to ungergo it in order to get a lighter penalty or conditional release. Thus current research aims to investigate the interwoven experiences of sentence serving and rehabilitation of former FDU.
The report presents the results of the study of claims-making in the LiveJournal posts about police and prison violence in Russia. The study is based on two cases: violence against the detainee Sergei Nazarov in the police department "Dalny" in Kazan in March 2012, which became the cause of his death, and open letters sent by Pussy Riot member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova from penal colony located in Mordovia in September and October 2013. The data highlight, firstly, the dominant retranslating function of the blogosphere and its weak mobilizing function, secondly, the similarity of rhetorical idioms used in these two cases, in particular, the rhetoric of endangerment (to citizens from authorities) and rhetoric of calamity (focused on Vladimir Putin’s presidency), third, attempts to legitimize violence against detainees and prisoners, fourthly, the systemic bloggers’ perception of processes in Russian police, prisons and penal colonies, fifth, the dominance of civic and sarcastic styles of claims-making in the blogosphere.
The article describes the methodology of rhetorical deconstruction of social problems which was worked out in sociology. The potentialities of its use in the analysis of television programs are shown by the example of one issue of talk show «Gordon Kihot» dedicated to the phenomenon on of glamour.
The question of social problems often meets with a central epistemological issue; how do we know that a given social problem actually exists? This article takes on this issue with a constructionist approach, employing the rhetorical deconstruction of media discourse witnessed in the work of Ibarra and Kitsuse. In such terms a social problem does not exist independently, it can only be considered to exist with reference to some linguistic version that produces it. Social Constructionism is seen to be the most suitable approach for the research of the processes of media communication as it allows the researcher to deconstruct this discourse into its constituent fragments, which can then be analysed . A review of this theory is provided to acquaint the reader with the strength of this approach. The media world is seen as a place that, rather than faithfully reflecting social reality, actually contributes to the construction of social reality. The focus of this article is the application of constructionism to the talk show ‘Gordon Quixote’, which is dedicated to discussion of the ‘social issue’ of glamour. The analysis of this programme allows us to reveal the strategies of problematisation and deproblematisation of glamour as a social and cultural phenomenon. This leads the author to the conclusion that television programmes are creating only the appearance of public discussion on the ‘hot topics’ of the day, in as far as they choose what things to make into ‘hot topics’. This means the creation of ‘scarecrow’ topics that are not really connected to serious issues. The presenter can take on the role of the knight furiously fighting windmills in the classic quixotic sense. The great source of excitement in the mass media is linked with the internal prerogative to successfully market one’s programming and appear ‘non-conformist’ in the treatment of issues before a skeptical audience.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.