Influence of championships in the revenues generation. [Influencia de los torneos en la generación de ingresos]
The aim of this paper was research how each kind of tournament affects the revenues generation in football clubs. We have analysed the sports performance of 28 Brazilian football clubs during five seasons (2010-14). We have studied the five most important tournaments there: Brazilian League, Brazilian Cup, State Championships, Libertadores Cup and South American Cup. We have carried out a linear regression in a panel data with football clubs fixed effects. The lagged variables of each tournament were employed to examine if the previous sports performance could improve the next revenues. The model explains 65.1% of the total revenues. In addition, the lagged performance in a League and the current performance in a Cup and Libertadores were the tournaments that statistically affect the revenues generation. We conclude that the importance and the competitive format have different impacts in the revenues generation on Brazilian football clubs.
This is the first fundamental textbook on the problems of regulation football. It introduced the concept of football law as the latest substructure of sports law and part of the legal system. The author generalized, systematized and commented the existing legal base in the field of football. The practice of application of regulations is analyzed, areas of improvement is identified. The experience of football relations regulation in foreign countries is analyzed. For students, graduate students and teachers of economics, jurisprydence and physical cultura schools and faculties, researchers, sports managers and sports agents, legal specialists, employees of sports organizations and the relevant governing bodies, athletes, coaches, referees and sports doctors, to all citizens engaged in physical culture and sports.
In this paper we deal with mathematical modeling of team sport games based on cellular automata (CA). We describe some developments of CA models of football. Presumable learning and optimization problems in team modeling based on CA are discussed. Some general problems are discussed which are related to the accounting of mentality of game participants.
Recent developments in international football governance seem to be progressively leading toward an increasing use of technological devices for refereeing purposes. Opponents to change are often portrayed as old-fashioned or conservative. Philosophy might be of some help to overcome the dispute. In this paper, we first explore several concepts that are central to the current debate on football refereeing. Then, we determine the business of referees in relation to rules. We assess different arguments displayed regarding the role of chance and skills in competitions. Finally, we argue for the idea of referees as full players in football games.
Football in Russian poetry
The new concept of football law as a modern substructure of sports law and legal system element is introduced. The existing legal base in the field of football is summarized, organized and analyzed. It is substantiated football law as the latest sphere of scientific jurisprudence and academic discipline, their content and structure are defined. Much attention is paid to the regulation of administrative relations in football.
Research question: This paper investigates how football sponsorship influences the financial performance of sponsors. We suggest a new instrumental variable to avoid endogeneity.
Research methods: We use an instrumental variable regression framework combined with a fixed effects model. The number of tweets containing both team and sponsor names are collected to use as the instrumental variable.
Results and findings: We analyze top European leagues. Our results show that football sponsorship is more charity than commercial investment. The analysis of determinants of becoming a sponsor and sponsorship amount shows that companies owned by individuals are more likely to become a sponsor.
Implications: Shareholders should be aware of sponsorship deals, and senior management should analyze the financial assumptions of such projects carefully.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.