Подростковая агрессия: групповые нормы и социальный статус среди сверстников
This study analyses the relationship between aggressive behavior of adolescents and their social status among peers. The data was collected in 2013–2014 in four vocational schools of St Petersburg (in total 418 students, mean age 17–18 years old). For comprehensive study of adolescents environment all second year students were surveyed. It was demonstrated that higher level of aggression is positively related to high social status (popularity) among peers. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) aggression is more prevalent in male groups than in female groups; (2) there is no gender differences in frequency of different forms of bullying (physical, verbal, or both); (3) youth who demonstrate aggressive behavior are more popular among peers; (4) the level of classroom aggressiveness increases popularity of aggressive boys; popularity of aggressive girls does not depend of the level of classroom aggressiveness. Future surveys of “culture of aggression” in adolescent groups are necessary for understanding of universality of our findings and for development of possible preventive methods to deal with teenagers’ aggression.
Workplace mobbing and harassment in Russia started to receive scholarly attention in 2000’s. This is relatively late in comparison with the majority of developed countries. Today research on this topic is still limited and mostly addresses specific aspects (sexual harassment against women, correlation between harassment and HRM policies, psychological portrait of a mobber, etc).
Some data on harassment have been collected while investigating more general topics – for example gender discrimination and human trafficking. Such studies show the peculiarities of this phenomenon in Russia and the public attitude towards it.
One of the most recent and comprehensive surveys on harassment jointly conducted by US and Russian scholars demonstrates mixed attitude towards mobbing and harassment, at least when they involve women. About 25% of respondents are inclined to take an escapist approach, saying that there is nothing particularly wrong with the harasser’s behavior. This is supported with the fact that as many as 43% of respondents are of the opinion that the harasser shall not be punished, and 26% of them put the blame on victims. As many as 24% of interviewees would advise the victim to avoid conflict and defuse the situation with humor, while 22% of them would advise the victim to resign. The number of those who suggest taking more reasonable steps – seeking help from their principal or a lawyer – falls below 20%. The authors of the study observe that by and large Russian people do not believe that harassment and mobbing deserve serious consideration.
At the national level, sociological research on harassment reveals a widespread tendency to assume that it is the victim who provokes the harasser (by means of a certain behavior, make-up, clothing, etc.) and that harassment and even violence is either a logical outcome of or a fair punishment for this.
Some differences have been found in the general attitude towards this issue when it comes to the harasser’s gender. A male harasser is treated with sympathy and considered just slightly too ‘passionate’ or too playful, while a female one would be accused of acting with impudence. This aspect shows that the traditional perception of women as ‘the root of all evil’ is still widespread in Russia despite all the political, economic and social changes that took place in the last century.
In today’s Russia the victim’s reaction to harassment is usually a passive one. People prefer to keep this embarrassing experience to themselves or to resign if things go too far. An intention to resist, to protect the victim’s rights and/or to sue the harasser is often perceived as a strange and disproportionate reaction to a minor issue.
It would have been interesting to compare these results with those concerning harassment against men. It would have been likewise interesting to investigate the relations (if any) between the statistics on harassment and mobbing, being them considered as two different forms of workplace violence. Unfortunately, no comparable studies have been found and there are reasons to believe that they do not exist at all. Apart from some scattered research projects, the data on mobbing and harassment come primarily from the press. A newspaper article is published from time to time considering a particular group that has become the target of male harassment (taxi drivers, chauffeurs, accountants, bodyguards, mid-level managers) or a mobbing occurrence in a particular sector (the army, the office, and so forth). Newspaper articles usually contain an overview of the opinions of various stakeholders on the problem, which vary from legislative initiatives to amend the Criminal Code - which still lacks some necessary provisions, for instance those allowing to protect men from being raped – to skeptical comments reflecting the widespread belief that the problem has been greatly and groundlessly exaggerated.
 For instance, a more or less consistent case law on sexual harassment emerged in the USA as early as in the XIX century, while the relevant legislation was developed in 1970’s. Research on mobbing as a psychological phenomenon dates back to H. Leymann’s works published in 1980’s. See also R.B. Siegel, A short history of sexual harassment, in C.A. MacKinnon, R.B. Siegel (eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law, Yale University Press, 2003, 1-39, and H. Leymann, Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces, in Violence and Victims, 1990, vol. 5, 119-126 (where reference is made to the first studies on this topic).
 O.I. Osipova, Vzaimosvyaz organizatzionnoi kultury i fenomena harassmenta (Interrelation between organizational culture and the harassment phenomenon), in Chelovecheskiy capital (Human capital), 2012, no. 12(48), 28-30, http://www.imtp.ru/upload/medialibrary/1d0/1d001c5446d6033dead95e79694a8c44.pdf (accessed May 05, 2013).
 Based on the analysis of the papers published in Russian since 1990 (and collected in the Russian State Library databases: http://www.rsl.ru/ru/s97/s977242/, on the Federal Legal Portal “Jurudicheskaya Rissiya” (“Juridical Russia”): http://www.law.edu.ru/search/search.asp?docType=0 and in the Russian Index of Scientific Citation (RINTZ): http://elibrary.ru/project_risc.asp). The analysis took into account the variations in the Russian terminology used in different contexts and branches of science.
 See: O. Stuchevskaya, Harassment i rossiyskie jenschiny (Harassment and Russian women), in Vestnik obschestvennogo mneniya (Public opinion bulletin), 2008, no. 4(96), 43-49, http://ecsocman.hse.ru/text/33513026/ (in Russian, accessed April 28, 2013). This Bulletin is published by “Levada-Center”, a major Russian nongovernmental center of sociological and marketing research: http://www.levada.ru/. A presentation of the statistical outcomes of the same joint research project is available in English at the CSIS website: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/events/081208_csis_gender_presentation.pdf. In this paper, I use the findings of this almost unique research project as one of the major statistical and sociological sources.
 O. Stuchevskaya, op.cit.
 See f.i.: Ph. Vivian, The churches and the modern thought, London, Watts, 1911, 277-286 (in particularly, citations on p. 284).
 See: ‘Rossiyskie mujchiny sokrushayutsya, chto harassment obhodit ih storonoy’ (‘Russian men grieve that harassment passes them over’). A sociological research conducted by the Research center of the SuperJob.ru website, 08.09.2008, http://www.superjob.ru/community/kollektiv/18364/ (in Russian, accessed May 02, 2013).
 O. Stuchevskaya, op.cit.; S.S. Balabanov, Z.H.-M. Saralieva, Seksualnye domogatelstva na rabote v Rossii (Sexual harassment at work in Russia), in Vestnik Nijegorodskogo Universiteta (Bulletin of the Nijniy Novgorod University), 2010, vol. 1, 7-12, http://126.96.36.199:2139/item.asp?id=15142471 (in Russian, accessed May 02, 2013); Ya.I. Alferova, Sravnitelniy analiz socialno-psihologicheskih harakteristik sotrudnikov, podvergayuschihsya mobbing v organizatziyah (Comparative analysis of socio-psychological characteristics of staff members exposed to mobbing in organizations), in Sovremennye issledovaniya socialnyh problem (Modern Research in Social Problems), 2012, vol. 11(19), 42-50, http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=18763977 or http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnitelnyy-analiz-sotsialno-psihologicheskih-harakteristik-sotrudnikov-podvergayuschihsya-mobbingu-v-organizatsiyah (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013); etc.
 See: D. Prihodko, ‘Shef, trogay!’ Taksisty prosyat zaschitit ih ot seksualnyh domogatelstv passajirok (‘Chef, get going!’ Taxi drivers demand a protection from being sexually harassed by female passengers), in AiF St Petersburg newspaper, 26.03.2013, http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/article/56070 (in Russian, accessed April 28, 2013). See also: Z.A. Hotkina, Mujchiny – jertvy seksualnyh domogatelstv (Male sexual harassment victims), Center for Social and Labor Rights (CSLP), http://trudprava.ru/index.php?id=1534 (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013).
 G. Bryntzeva, Mobbing dik, in Rossiiskaya gazeta. Federalniy vypusk (Russian Newspaper. Federal Issue), 2010, no. 5139(60), http://www.rg.ru/2010/03/24/mobbing.html (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013). The article presents an interview with a director of the Clinical psychology department of the Scientific Center of Mental Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
 D. Prihodko, op.cit.
Abstract The role of genes in the expression of aggression and masculinity traits in humans has been a focus of recent behavioral genetic studies. This is the first study on the variation in aggression, the digit ratio (the ratio between the second and the fourth digits, 2D:4D), the directional asymmetry in 2D:4D (DR-L) and polymorphisms of the AR, DRD4, and 5-HTTL genes in simple hunter-gatherers, namely the Hadza of Tanzania (142 adult men). The distribution of AR, DRD4E3, and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and allele frequencies in Hadza was compared to other African populations on which the data were available. Hadza and Ariaal differed significantly in the distributions of frequencies of AR alleles with different numbers of CAG repeats. Hadza population was similar to other African populations in the distribution of allelic frequencies of the DRD4E3 locus, and to Afro- Americans in the distribution of allelic types of the 5- HTTLPR locus. We found no influence of AR gene on the right hand 2D:4D ratio,DR-L, and any of aggression subscales of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Although, a weak positive correlation between CAG repeats and the left hand 2D:4Dwas found. The multiple regression analysis with digit ratios, DR-L and aggression subscales of AQ as dependent variables and the three gene candidates (AR, DRD4E3, and 5-HTTLPR) as independent variables revealed the following: men with lower number of CAG repeats had significantly lower left hand2D:4D ratio;men with highernumbers of 48-bp unit copies in exon 3 of a VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene had significantly lower digit ratios on both hands; no effect of the 5-HTTLPR gene on either the digit ratio or aggressive behavior. These findings demonstrate the complexity of gene effects on digit ratios and aggression and call for simultaneous analysis of more candidate genes. It is noteworthy that these results were obtained for a human population that is still practicing foraging and has been subjected to a high selective pressure due to harsh environments and practically has no access to modern medical care. Hadza are highly egalitarian, and their culture does not favor persons with a dominant or aggressive behavior. It is still to be found to what extent the relationships observed in this study are similar to those in other human populations.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.